Life on Land

Devolution and Collective Action in Forest Management: The Case of China 20-21

Submitted by Eugenia Leon on 29 June 2020

Since 2003, China has implemented a large-scale forest devolution reform by giving villages the right to devolve tenure rights of collectively owned forests to households. Some villages chose no reform, and the forest continued to be owned and controlled by the village committee. In other villages, the reform was adopted and forests became owned and managed by individual households. In a third group, the reform was adopted and forests became household owned but are managed jointly.

Forestry

Building the evidence base for REDD+: Study design and methods for evaluating the impacts of conservation interventions on local well-being

Submitted by Stephanie Scott on 29 June 2020

Climate change mitigation in developing countries is increasingly expected to generate co-benefits that help meet sustainable development goals. This has been an expectation and a hotly contested issue in REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) since its inception.

Conservation, Forestry

Looking for medium-term conservation and development impacts of community management agreements in Uganda’s Rwenzori Mountains National Park

Submitted by Stephanie Scott on 29 June 2020

We evaluate the impact of collaborative management agreements (CMAs) designed to protect forests and raise incomes for smallholders living adjacent to Rwenzori Mountains National Park (RMNP), Uganda. We use a quasi-experimental study design to estimate changes in several income measures, as well as land cover using three waves (2003, 2007, and 2012) of household survey and remote sensing data. Overall, we find no significant impact of CMAs on any of our income measures.

Conservation

The Economics of REDD through an Incidence of Burdens and Benefits Lens

Submitted by Stephanie Scott on 28 June 2020

Forests in lower-income countries provide a global public good, carbon sequestration. REDD, "reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation" is a performance-based payment designed to align private incentives at the country level with the socially optimal level of forest loss. This review article focuses on the distributional implications of REDD, specifically on whom the burdens and benefits fall. First, REDD implementation has proven more difficult and costly than originally anticipated.

Carbon Pricing, Climate Change, Forestry

Logging Concessions, Certification & Protected Areas in the Peruvian Amazon: Forest Impacts from Combinations of Development Rights & Land-use Restrictions

Submitted by Stephanie Scott on 28 June 2020
EfD Authors:

In this paper, we use geospatial data and difference-in-differences models to identify the deforestation effects, during 2000-2013, of the leading forest policies in the Peruvian Amazon: i) logging concessions, ii) third-party certification of concessions, and iii) Protected Areas (PAs). We find that on average logging concessions have no effect on tree-cover loss, while the PAs do reduce loss. Further, the PAs allowing limited private extraction save more forest than do more restrictive PAs.

Forestry

Impacts of certification, uncertified concessions, and protected areas on forest loss in Cameroon, 2000 to 2013

Submitted by Stephanie Scott on 28 June 2020
EfD Authors:

Deforestation and forest fragmentation are leading drivers of biodiversity loss. Protected areas have been the leading conservation policy response, yet their scale and scope remain inadequate to meet biodiversity conservation targets. Managed forest concessions increasingly have been recognized as a complement to protected areas in meeting conservation targets.

Forestry

Employment in industrial timber plantations: An Ethiopian case supported by a global review

Submitted by Stephanie Scott on 28 June 2020
EfD Authors:
  • Global experience of employment generation in timber plantations shows contrasting outcomes including in terms of rural development, but there are also commonalities such as poor working conditions, seasonality of employment and relatively low labor intensity over large areas compared to other land uses.
  • Ethiopia conforms to this pattern, based on a case study of an industrial timber plantation, with low wages and reliance on casual jobs without formal contracts in a rural context of a weak labor market with few employment opportunities.
Forestry

Migration and mobility on the Amazon frontier

Submitted by Stephanie Scott on 28 June 2020

Migration patterns within tropical forest frontiers are highly complex and multidirectional, with movements to, from, and within these regions likely driven by different macro and micro factors. As such, several different conceptual models have been suggested to explain these dynamics. This paper uses data from a panel survey of households in a frontier region of the western Brazilian Amazon along with “second hand” reports on where people have moved to evaluate these conceptual models.

Forestry

The estimation of long term impacts of China's key priority forestry programs on rural household incomes

Submitted by Stephanie Scott on 28 June 2020
EfD Authors:

We use a large unique household panel dataset spanning 16 years to estimate the impacts of three Key Priority Forestry Programs (the KPFPs) in China on household incomes. The programs are the most significant of China's forest policies namely the Sloping Land Conversion Program (the SLCP), the Natural Forest Protection Program (the NFPP), and the Desertification Combating Program around Beijing and Tianjin (the DCBT). A fixed effect model with clustered standard errors is used to identify programs’ impacts based on variation in participation across households and time.

Forestry

Busting the boom–bust pattern of development in the Brazilian Amazon

Submitted by Stephanie Scott on 28 June 2020

Global ecosystem services are clearly threatened by deforestation associated with human occupation and economic development of the Brazilian Amazon. However, the prognosis for the socioeconomic wellbeing of inhabitants remains unclear. In an empirical regularity that has been termed the boom–bust pattern or the resource curse, the exploitation of natural resources is associated with short-run gains in welfare that dissipate over time.

Forestry