A key strategy for adapting to changing water availability and rapid urbanization is a move towards full cost recovery tariffs for water and sanitation services. Because these services are substantially underpriced in most places, this strategy implies that careful attention must be directed at programs to help the poor manage water affordability. In this paper, we systematize these “customer assistance programs” (CAPs) by defining their major elements and develop a typology that highlights the connection between CAPs and water scarcity.
Introducción. Las prácticas agrícolas basadas en el buen manejo de los ecosistemas son promovidas como una buena estrategia de adaptación para las actividades productivas de pequeños caficultores en la región Centroamericana. La diseminación de la información sobre innovaciones, técnicas, instrumentos, etc. entre las organizaciones y productores es clave para expandir y consolidar el uso de estas prácticas. Objetivo.
This article examines how basic socioeconomic and political factors are associated with higher levels of cooperation to garner a local community's shared green reputation. We analyze panel data on participation efforts in a collective voluntary environmental program, the Ecological Blue Flag Program, by the entire population of beach communities in Costa Rica between 2001 and 2009.
Protected areas (PAs) are a prominent approach to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem services. A critical question for safeguarding these resources is how PA governance processes and management structures influence their effectiveness. We conduct an impact evaluation of 12 PAs in three Central American countries to assess how processes in management restrictions, management capacity, and decentralization affect the annual change in the satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI).
The Mesoamerican Agroenvironmental Program (MAP-Norway) is a multi-dimensional rural development program implemented in Central America since 2009, working with smallholder families, producer organizations, governmental organizations, and regional governance platforms. To monitor, assess, and evaluate the effects of the program on its beneficiaries, MAP-Norway uses a series of indicators that allow project managers and donors to adapt and follow-up on the interventions.
Central America is one of the regions with the highest vulnerability to climate change, with negative effects projected to affect its economy and
In order to ensure the provision of goods and services from forests, many governments have promoted less-traditional conservation initiatives such as programs of payments for ecosystem services called, more broadly, direct payments for conservation. The Socio Bosque Program (SBP) is a governmental program in Ecuador that directly provides economic incentives to rural families and local and indigenous communities who have voluntarily agreed to comply with some conservation activities. An impact evaluation method (matching) was used to assess the impact of the SBP between 2008 and 2014.
The incorporation of an agglomeration bonus payment to encourage spatial coordination in auction
Wildlife is widely becoming an important vehicle for rural development in most third-world countries across the globe. With wildlife, as with other conservation and development policies, policymakers are usually not informed about the needs and wants of poor rural households and roll out programmes that are not tailor made to suit their desires, which often results in policy failure. We use a survey-based choice experiment in this paper to investigate household preferences for various attributes of a wildlife management scheme.
The loss of ecosystems in cities may involve high long-term economic costs and severe impacts on social, cultural, and economic values. However, it is difficult to put a number on the benefits of urban green spaces. Limited research has been conducted on people’s preference for urban green spaces in developing countries and how much they are willing to pay for these benefits. Thus, this research contributes to sustainable urbanization by considering preferences and the value that residents place on potential improvements to urban green spaces in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.