Responsible Consumption and Production

A framework for selecting and designing policies to reduce marine plastic pollution in developing countries

Submitted by Gracia Lanza on 2 May 2020

The polluting of marine ecosystems with plastics is both a global and a local problem with potentially severe consequences for wildlife, economic activity, and human health. It is a problem that originates in countries’ inability to adequately manage the growing flow of waste. We use an impact pathway framework to trace the flow of plastics through the socio-ecological system and identify the role of specific policy instruments in achieving behavioral changes to reduce marine plastic waste. We produce a toolbox for finding a policy that is suitable for different countries.

Policy Design, Waste

Environmental Impacts and Policy Responses to Covid-19: A View from Latin America

Submitted by César Salazar on 14 July 2020

COVID-19 is currently having major short run effects with possible serious long run implications for the environment and the management of natural resources in Latin America. We discuss the possible effects of the pandemic on air pollution, deforestation and other relevant environmental dimensions across the region. With contributions from environmental economists from eight countries, we give an overview of the initial and expected environmental effects of this health crisis.

Air Quality, Energy, Health, Policy Design

Factors Influencing Household Electronic Waste (E-Waste) Recycling Participation

Submitted by Stephanie Scott on 28 June 2020
EfD Authors:

The amount of electronic waste (e-waste) has relatively increased along with the rapid increases in technological and economic development in Malaysia. In order to avoid dumping massive amounts of electronic waste in landfills, recycling programs were implemented by policymakers and governments to attract people to participate in these programs. The success of recycling programs largely depends on household participation and their commitment. Therefore, a better understanding on recycling behaviour will help to design and improve the effectiveness of these programs.

The effect of FDI on environmental emissions: Evidence from meta-analysis

Submitted by Vicentia Quartey on 16 June 2020
EfD Authors:

A frequently-raised issue about foreign direct investment (FDI) is the potentially negative consequences for the environment. The potential environmental cost resulting from increased emissions may undermine the economic gains associated with increases in FDI inflow. Although the literature is dominated with this adverse view of FDI on the environment, there is a possibility that FDI can contribute to a cleaner environment, especially, if FDI comes with green technologies and this creates spillovers for domestic industries.

 

Climate Change, Energy

How to Ask Farmers about Risk to Help Design Agricultural Policies

Submitted by Eugenia Leon on 18 May 2020

Researchers and officials interested in people’s attitudes toward risk when designing public policies should make sure that their questions about risk are asked in the specific context of the policy rather than in general abstract questions.

Agriculture, Policy Design

Farmers Prefer Post-Harvest Grazing Restrictions but Demand Policy Incentives to Increase Forage Production

Submitted by Eugenia Leon on 18 May 2020

While livestock is an integral component of the mixed crop-livestock farming system in Ethiopia, there is competition between crops and livestock for the limited feed resources. The residue after harvest is one source of livestock feed but has other potential uses, including leaving it on the field to conserve soil and water and reduce weeds. The current practice is open access grazing, in which any farmer’s livestock can eat the residue left on another farmer’s fields.

Agriculture, Policy Design

Natural Resource Revenues and Public Investment in Resource-rich Economies in Sub-Saharan Africa

Submitted by Samuel Wakuma on 18 May 2020

The general policy prescription for resource‐rich countries is that, for sustainable consumption, a greater percentage of the windfall from resource rents should be channeled into accumulating foreign assets such as a sovereign public fund as done in Norway and other developed but resource‐rich countries. This might not be a correct policy prescription for resource‐rich sub‐Saharan African (SSA) countries, where public capital is very low to support the needed economic growth. In such countries, rents from resources serve as an opportunity to scale‐up the needed public capital.

Policy Design

Weather at Different Growth Stages, Multiple Climate Smart Practices and Farm Level Risks: Panel Data Evidence from the Nile Basin of Ethiopia 20-04

Submitted by Eugenia Leon on 13 May 2020

The present study investigates the effects of combinations of climate smart agricultural practices on risk exposure and cost of risk. We do this by examining the different risk components – mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis – in a multinomial treatment effects framework by controlling weather variables for key stages of crop growth. We found that adoption of combinations of practices is widely viewed as a risk reducing insurance strategy that can increase farmers’ resilience to production risk.

Agriculture