The general policy prescription for resource‐rich countries is that, for sustainable consumption, a greater percentage of the windfall from resource rents should be channeled into accumulating foreign assets such as a sovereign public fund as done in Norway and other developed but resource‐rich countries. This might not be a correct policy prescription for resource‐rich sub‐Saharan African (SSA) countries, where public capital is very low to support the needed economic growth. In such countries, rents from resources serve as an opportunity to scale‐up the needed public capital.
Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions
The current share of sub-Saharan Africa in global carbon dioxide emissions is negligible compared to major contributors like Asia, Americas, and Europe. This trend is, however, likely to change given that both economic growth and rate of urbanization in the region are projected to be robust in the future. The current study contributes to the literature by examining both the direct and the indirect impacts of quality of institution on the environment.
The concept of welfare has evolved to incorporate subjective elements. One key factor for development is social capital. Participation in organizations promotes a more active social life, with potential positive results on welfare. This work investigates this last association through the estimation of a bivariate ordered probit model by using the World Value Survey for Chile.
Lately, questionings have emerged on how public resources are managed. This work calculates the technical efficiency of municipalities in Chile, with special emphasis on the political factors that drive efficiency in the management of local resources. In particular, focus is placed on the relationship between political ideology of the local government and central government. To do this, we use a panel data of Chilean municipalities for the years 2010-2016. The methodology follows two stages. First, we estimate efficiency scores by the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach.
We present the results of a series of economic laboratory experiments designed to study the compliance behavior of polluting firms when penalties are stochastic. The experiments consist of a regulatory environment in which university students faced emission standards and an enforcement mechanism composed of audit probabilities and penalties (conditional on detection of a violation).
The last decade has seen a significant global increase in immigration. This large growth has caused an increasing opposition to immigration in local populations in many parts of the world, partly because of a commonly held belief that immigration increases crime. Using data from Chile, spanning 10 years, from 2005 to 2015, we analyze the relationship between immigration and crime through a dynamic Spatial Durbin Model (SDM), which accounts for the possible bias for omitted variables.
This paper investigates the relation between risk taking and market power in the US banking sector by introducing the effect of geographical spillovers caused by the transmission of risk taking among banks. For this purpose, we use spatial econometrics. Our results support a negative relation between risk taking and market power. The transmission of risk taking causes significant geographical spillovers, which increases the magnitude of the relation under analysis here.
This research estimates an ordered probit model with data from the 2014 LAPOP survey to explore the factors that explain confidence in institutions in Chile. Results show an increased lack of confidence from the original peoples toward security institutions, probably due to the Mapuche Conflict. There is also a positive effect of democracy and performance variables that unveils differences in responsibilities between the executive power and the municipalities.
The book discusses the foundations of economics development and institutions. The chapters touch on several issues such as :
1) Institutions,Clientalism and Inequality
2) Institutions and Growth
3) Trade, Aid and Migration
4)Families,Gender and Culture
5) Sectoral Approaches
EfD India contribtuion : Book Chapters by Rohini Somanathan (Part 1 chapter 4) and E. Somanathan (Part 5, Chapter 20)
The voice and role of communities, particularly their capacity to organise and resist, has been understudied in the specialised literature on illicit crops and largely ignored in policy debates. Based on ongoing research in Colombia, this policy paper explores the capacity of communities to organise and resist – as a manifestation of cultural and social capital – in the context of illicit economies.