Sustainable Cities and Communities

Network analysis: a novel approach to identify PM2.5 hotspots and their spatio-temporal impact on air quality in Santiago de Chile

Submitted by César Salazar on 30 July 2020
EfD Authors:

Air pollution, particularly PM2.5 particulate matter, is a significant issue in Santiago, the capital of Chile. Santiago’s pollution problem is exacerbated by its unique geographic location nestled against the Andes mountain range in the central valley of Chile. This paper uses network models that were developed primarily to analyze systemic risk in the financial system to identify those locations in the city that are most important for explaining PM2.5 levels.

Air Quality, Climate Change, Urban

Value of cleaner neighborhoods: Application of hedonic price model in low income context

Submitted by Vidisha Chowdhury on 22 July 2020
EfD Authors:

Municipal solid waste management is a challenging issue in developing countries. An unclean neighborhood could have a significant negative impact on housing property values too as it may lead to numerous diseases in addition to diminished aesthetic value. This study examines the effects of municipal solid waste collection services at the neighborhood level on housing property values using the hedonic price model. We use a sub-sample of nationally representative household survey data from urban areas as well as primary data collected from one of the metropolitan cities in Nepal.

Urban, Waste

Assessing the Incorporation of Latent Variables in the Estimation of the Value of a Statistical Life 20-22

Submitted by César Salazar on 28 June 2020

We explore the incorporation of latent variables (attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions) in the estimation of the value of a statistical life using a hybrid choice model framework. Latent

Policy Design, Urban

The Effect of a Congestion Charge on Traffic: The Case of London 20-11

Submitted by Eugenia Leon on 12 June 2020
EfD Authors:

Based on very detailed monitoring data, we examine the effectiveness of the City of London’s congestion charge on traffic. Through multiple Regression Discontinuity Design estimations, we found that the introduction of the congestion charge had an immediate effect and brought significant social welfare, but the effect was diminished as time went on, which explains the need for periodic charge rate adjustments. Moreover, when the charges expanded to new zones, there was a spillover effect to the old zones. At the same time, the charge also affected drivers’ choice of when to drive.

Urban

The impact of paying for forest conservation on perceived tenure security in Ecuador

Submitted by César Salazar on 9 June 2020

We study the impact of Ecuador's national forest conservation incentives program on reported land conflicts. Data come from a survey of >900 households located within 49 indigenous and Afro‐Ecuadorian communities holding communal conservation contracts. We use quasi‐experimental methods to test for relationships between program participation and changes in land conflicts. Respondents reported that the program reduced land conflicts when households resided in communities with de facto communal tenure arrangements (vs. de facto semiprivate arrangements).

Conservation, Forestry, Land, Policy Design

Infrastructure Improvements and Maize Market Integration: Bridging the Zambezi in Mozambique

Submitted by César Salazar on 9 June 2020

Historically, transport infrastructure connecting the most agriculturally productive areas of Mozambique and the richer southern region has been poor. A primary bottleneck was an unreliable ferry service over the Zambezi river, addressed by construction of a road bridge in 2009. In this paper we identify the impact of this transport infrastructure enhancement on integration of national maize markets.

Agriculture, Urban

Are forest plantation subsidies affecting land use change and off-farm income? A farm-level analysis of Chilean small forest landowners

Submitted by César Salazar on 8 May 2020
EfD Authors:

Forest plantations have increased rapidly in the last three decades, to a large extent due to direct and indirect financial incentives. At the farm level, forestry incentives can affect the investment decisions of small forest landowners and bring socioeconomic externalities or unintended effects associated with farm management. The purpose of this study is to assess the ex post impacts of a forestry subsidy on land use changes and off-farm income experienced by Chilean small forest landowners.

Agriculture, Climate Change, Conservation, Land, Policy Design

Social capital and subjective well-being: a study of the role of participation in social organizations in life satisfaction and happiness in Chilean cities

Submitted by César Salazar on 8 May 2020

The concept of welfare has evolved to incorporate subjective elements. One key factor for development is social capital. Participation in organizations promotes a more active social life, with potential positive results on welfare. This work investigates this last association through the estimation of a bivariate ordered probit model by using the World Value Survey for Chile.

Urban

Fuel choices and fuelwood use for residential heating and cooking in urban areas of central-southern Chile: The role of prices, income, and the availability of energy sources and technology

Submitted by César Salazar on 8 May 2020

This paper empirically analyzes the determinants of fuel choices and intensity of fuelwood use for residential heating and cooking in central-southern Chile. By using information from a sample of 2761 households in nine urban areas, we first investigate households’ choices of the main fuel used for heating by means of multinomial models. Then we examine the intensity of fuelwood use through fractional probit models. These models allow analyzing the interdependence of fuel use by households, while taking into account households’ individual heterogeneity.

Air Quality, Energy, Policy Design