Gender Equality

Age at Marriage and Women's Labour Market Outcomes in India

Submitted by Suvir Chandna on 1 May 2020
EfD Authors:

We examine the relationship between women's age at marriage and their labour market outcomes using nationally representative household data from India. Employing an instrumental variable‐based empirical strategy, we find that a delay in women's age at marriage has no significant causal effect on their labour market outcomes. This is despite marriage delay being associated with higher education, lower fertility and (possibly) higher dowry for Indian women. We argue that this might be because older brides, as compared with younger brides, face more backlash from their partners.

Gender

Exploring firm performance and growth among own-account and micro enterprises in Ghana

Submitted by Stephanie Scott on 28 June 2020
EfD Authors:

Using micro-level data from the 2013 nationally-representative GENDA survey on approximately 1,200 own-account and micro enterprises, we examine firm performance and business growth between men and women entrepreneurs in Ghana. Using OLS and multinomial logit (MNL) regression techniques, we find differential effects and constraints for men and women-owned businesses: men generally perform better than women, controlling for a host of characteristics. We find that among women-operated firms, locating a business at home has negative performance implications.

Gender

Effects of Higher Spousal Earnings on Women's Social Empowerment in Ghana

Submitted by Stephanie Scott on 28 June 2020
EfD Authors:

Existing research shows that access to employment and earnings appears to have ambiguous effects on women’s bargaining power and subsequent empowerment. This study explores the effect of higher relative earnings by women on the likelihood of social empowerment and examines to what extent the relationship is moderated by husbands’ education levels. The 2008 and 2014 rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey are used for the analyses, and a Probit regression model, with interaction effects, is employed as a base model.

Gender

Occupational Prestige and Women’s Experience of Intimate Partner Violence in Nigeria

Submitted by Stephanie Scott on 28 June 2020
EfD Authors:

One-in-four women in Nigeria has experienced some type of spousal violence in her life. The present study uses relative occupational positions of women as a proxy for bargaining power and examines this as a potential risk (or protective) factor for intimate partner abuse in Nigeria; a perspective as yet unexplored by the existing literature. Using the nationally-representative 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) and a multinomial logit regression model, I examine the association between occupations and IPV.

Gender

Social Protection and Vulnerability to Nutrition Security among Male and Female Headed Households in Ethiopia 20-05

Submitted by Eugenia Leon on 13 May 2020

This study examines the role of Ethiopia’s productive safety net program (PSNP) and its modes of benefit transfer in vulnerability to nutritional outcomes among female- and male-headed households

Gender, Health

Rainfall Shocks and the Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from Indian Agriculture

Submitted by Suvir Chandna on 12 May 2020
EfD Authors:

In the context of climate change and its effect on poverty, previous studies have shown that productivity shocks in agriculture, such as rainfall variability, affect wages adversely. None of the studies, however, consider the heterogeneity in the impact of these shocks on agricultural wages by gender, a feature which has been studied for demand shocks in urban labor markets for developed countries. Using National Sample Survey data for India from 1993 to 2007, a district-level panel dataset is created to examine how a rainfall shock affects the gender wage gap.

Gender