In this study, researchers met with Khomani San “bushmen” and Mier “agricultural” communities who live in or near the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in South Africa. The researchers proposed a biodiversity conservation programme that would include planting and protecting native trees, shrubs, and grasslands, and asked the local communities about their willingness to pay for the program. Depending on the particular community and on land tenure arrangements, there would be winners and losers from the proposed programme, but, in each case, the winners would benefit by more than the cost that the losers would suffer. The findings suggest that South Africa’s Khomani San, whose attitudes toward modern conservation have not been evaluated until now, and the adjacent Mier community, generally attach a significant economic value to biodiversity in their area.
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