The chapter is a case study of tenure security and ecosystem service provisioning in Kenya. It provides support to a strong positive link between tenure security and investment in soil and water conservation. Evidence from 18 villages in rural Kenya suggests that household income tends to increase as a result of land conservation investments. This is particularly the case when land is registered in the name of the household head rather than another member of the extended family. The lesson learnt is that though ownership encourages investment in natural resource conservation, it is not necessarily a sufficient condition for enhanced household welfare. The impact of conservation may be intermediated by presence of village institutions, development domain dimensions and agro-ecological diversity.
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