The high rates of economic activity and environmental degradation in Asia demand the implementation of creative and cost-effective environmental policy instruments that provide polluters with more flexibility to find least-cost solutions to pollution reduction. Despite their many theoretical advantages, the use of market-based instruments (MBIs) is a relatively recent phenomenon in Asia, partly due to policymakers being unfamiliar with MBIs and countries lacking the institutional capacity to implement and enforce them. This paper reviews the Asian experience with MBIs intended to reduce air pollution emissions and synthetizes lessons to be drawn and areas for improvement.
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