Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in poor countries typically address the impact of fishing restrictions on rural resource-dependent villagers because of their mandate and because achieving conservation goals requires altering household fishing behavior.
Income-generating projects create incentives for local people to reduce their fish harvest if the time spent in the projects produces more value than the time spent in fishing. Patrols and punishment reduce the value fishermen expect to receive from fishing and so can also reduce fishing effort. MPA strategies that consider a village’s location relative to agricultural land, markets, and introduced projects are likely to be more effective than non-spatial strategies.
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