Gold mining produces large environmental impacts with significant land-use conversion and pollution of both water and air, linked to mercury and other heavy metals. The communities engaged in gold mining are highly dependent on gold traders, in a context of violence, due to the illegality of most gold production.
Most concerns of pollution centralize the debate on PM, and forget that other pollutants such as ozone may also have impacts on public health.
As programs of payment for ecosystem or environmental services (PES) are rising in number, there is a need to understand effects of PES on providers’ motivations and, in turn, behaviors. ‘Crowding in’ of pro-environmental motivations is possible − although a significant literature has expressed concern with the ‘crowding out’ of such motivations by external interventions. Yet empirical research is scarce concerning any such ‘crowding’ by PES − in either direction. Theoretical hopes and concerns are clear but, to date, the related empirical evidence is limited.
Medellin, the second largest city in Colombia, is located in the Aburrá Valley and exhibits the lowest level of air quality of the country due to PM2.5 (IDEAM, 2016).The topographic characteristics, meteorological conditions and anthropogenic emissions facilitate pollutant accumulation in the air of the Aburrá Valley.
Artisanal fishing in developing countries usually lacks statistics that allow proper research and understanding about livelihoods and fishing models; that makes it difficult to propose alternative solutions to fisheries management.
Latin America is the most urbanized region in the world with almost 80 per cent of the total population living in urban centers (UN Habitat 2014).
During the mid-1990s one of the most ambitious land reforms of recent decades took place in Colombia. The objective was to recognize collective rights over land to the Afro-descendants in the Pacific coast of the country to improve their livelihoods and to preserve valuable ecosystems.