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Research to manage the Environment for Development

Environmental policy instruments must be used to deal with global environmental problems

Environmental policy instruments must be used to deal with global environmental problems

Global environmental problems can be addressed by means of policy instruments such as carbon dioxide taxes, building and technology standards and support for new technology, but the issues are complex and several environmental problems must be addressed simultaneously in order to achieve optimal effect. Therefore, different research areas must work together to find solutions. This is evident from an article published in the journal Nature Sustainability.

The Costa Rica PES Program: the success, the challenges and its new opportunities of financing

The Costa Rica PES Program: the success, the challenges and its new opportunities of financing

Costa Rica has been a pioneer in implementing policies to protect and promote ecosystem services. One of the most successful innovative public financing schemes implemented more than twenty years ago was the “payments for ecosystem services” (PES), which along with other policies and enabling conditions led to a dramatic increase in its forest cover, from less than 30% in the 1980s to 54% of its territory today.

Recent publications

2019-01-15

Naturally Available Wild Pollination Services Have Economic Value for Nature Dependent Small-Holder Crop Farms in Tanzania

Despite the importance of naturally available wild pollination ecosystem services in enhancing sub-Saharan African smallholder farms’ productivity, their values to actual farming systems remain unknown. We develop a nationally representative empirical assessment by integrating nationally representative plot level panel data with spatially and temporally matched land cover maps to identify the contribution of wild pollinators to crop revenue.

2019-01-15

The Impact of Multiple Climate Smart Practices on Gender Differentiated Nutrition Outcomes: Panel Data Evidence from Ethiopia

Since the beginning of the decade, climate resilient green economy strategies have been proposed in many African countries. One of the pillars of the strategies is the adoption and diffusion of various climate smart agricultural practices for improving crop and livestock production and farmer income while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The effects of these innovations on household nutritional security, including gender-differentiated nutritional status, have hardly been analyzed.

2019-01-15

Cost of Power Outages for Manufacturing Firms in Ethiopia:A Stated Preference Study

Having a reliable supply of electricity is essential for the operation of any firm. In most developing countries, however, electricity supply is highly unreliable. In this study, we estimate the cost of power outages for micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, using a stated preference survey. We find that the willingness to pay, and thus the cost of power outages, is substantial. The estimated willingness to pay for a reduction of one power outage corresponds to a tariff increase of 16 percent.

2019-01-15

Measuring Trust in Institutions

In empirical studies, survey questions are typically used to measure trust; trust games are also used to measure interpersonal trust. In this paper, we measure trust in different institutions by using both trust games and survey questions. We find that generalized trust is only weakly correlated with trust in specific institutions, when elicited both by using a trust game and by using survey questions. However, the correlation between trust in a specific institution elicited through a trust game and stated trust for the same institution is stronger and statistically significant.

2019-01-10

Using Data on Social Influence and Collective Action for Parameterizing a Geographically-Explicit Agent-Based Model for the Diffusion of Soil Conservation Efforts

Social influence affects individual decision-making on soil conservation. Understanding the emergent diffusion of collective conservation effort is relevant to natural resource management at the river basin level. This study focuses on the effect of subjective norms and collective action on the diffusion of Soil Conservation Effort (SCE) in the Lake Naivasha basin (Kenya) for the period 1965–2010. A geographically-explicit Agent-Based Model (ABM) version of the CONSUMAT model was developed: the CONSERVAT model.

2019-01-10

Households’ Preferences and Willingness to Pay for Improved Solid Waste Management Interventions Using Choice Experiment Approach: Debre Tabor Town, Northwest Ethiopia

Good Solid Waste Management (SWM) practices are indispensable for maintaining quality environment and the health of urban dwellers in most developing countries, like Ethiopia. However, for successful implementation of adequate SWM options, households’ preferences and their Willingness to Pay (WTP) should be taken in to consideration. The main aim of this study was to analyse the preferences of households’ and estimate the WTP for improved SWM service attributes in the form of money income and labor effort using choice experiment approach.

2018-11-27

China's Sex Ratio and Crime: Behavioural Change or Financial Necessity

This paper uses survey and experimental data from prison inmates and comparable non-inmates to examine the drivers of rising criminality in China. We find that China’s high sex ratios are associated with greater risk-taking, greater impatience and greater neuroticism amongst males. These underlying behavioural impacts explain some part of the increase in criminality. The primary avenue through which the sex ratio increases crime, however, is the direct pressure on men to appear financially attractive in order

2018-11-27

Gender Differences in Willingness to Compete: The Role of Culture and Institutions

Our Beijing‐based laboratory experiment investigated gender differences in competitive choices across different birth‐cohorts experiencing – during their crucial developmental‐age – different institutions and social norms. To control for general time trends, we use Taipei counterpart subjects with identical original Confucian traditions. Our findings confirm that exposure to different institutions/norms during crucial developmental‐ages significantly changes individuals’ behaviour.