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Environment for Development Center for Central America
This paper examines the effect of farmers’ liability on demand for credit with and without insurance. We test predictions of a theoretical model in a lab in the field experiment with coffee farmers in Costa Rica.
The productivity of certain crops such as coffee (Coffea arabica L.), maize (Zea mays) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is expected to decline in Central America because of climate change. This will impact regional economies and livelihoods of smallholder farmers relying on these crops for their food security and livelihoods.
Climate change will affect the distribution, productivity and profitability of coffee production in Central America, negatively impacting national economies and small farmer livelihoods.
This study evaluates the distribution of electricity subsidies to residential customers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in 2016 that results from the current increasing block tariff (IBT) structure. Customer billing data supplied by the electricity utility were matched with socioeconomic information collected from a survey of 987 households, and used with a utility-specific estimate of the costs of electricity service to estimate household-specific subsidies.