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Economic Incentives, Perceptions and Compliance with Marine Turtle Egg Harvesting Regulation in Nicaragua

La Flor Wildlife Refuge and nearby beaches on the Pacific coast of Nicaragua are important nesting sites for various species of endangered marine turtles. However, illegal harvesting of turtle eggs threatens the survival of marine turtles. In this study, we analysed the different motivations of local villagers for complying with a ban on harvesting marine turtle eggs in a context, in which government authorities do not have the means to fully enforce existing regulations.


Marine protected areas in Costa Rica: How do artisanal fishers respond?

Costa Rica is considering expanding their marine protected areas (MPAs) to conserve marine resources. Due to the importance of households’ responses to an MPA in defining the MPA’s ecological and economic outcomes, this paper uses an economic decision framework to interpret data from near-MPA household surveys to inform this policy discussion. The model and data suggest that the impact of expanding MPAs relies on levels of enforcement and on-shore wages.


What does it take to be heard in managing marine protected areas? Insights from Tanzania coastal communities

This paper explores the debate on participatory approach by presenting evidence from the local communities practices living within the marine protected area in Tanzania (Mnazi Bay Ruvuma-Estuary Marine Park). Five out of fifteen villages that exist in Mnazi Bay Marine Park were selected for this study after consultation with the park authority. Stratified sampling of villages was conducted based on the location from the Indian Ocean: three villages located close to the sea (sea front villages) and two villages located far from the sea (inland villages).


Disease Risk and Market Structure in Salmon Aquaculture

We develop a model of a multi-national firm producing commodities for a global market in multiple locations with location-specific risks and different regulatory standards. Salmon aquaculture and disease outbreaks provide an empirically relevant example. We specifically examine details of the infectious salmon anemia outbreak in Chile in the late 2000s, the multi-national nature of some firms operating in Chile, and the overall market structure of the salmon farming industry as motivation for our theoretical model.


The Role of Information in Changing Tourist Behavioral Preferences at the Humboldt Penguin Reserve in Northern Chile

With considerable focus on ecotourism's potential to contribute to conservation, it is increasingly important to understand the implications of ecological information in triggering sustainability-relevant attitudes and actions. This study assesses whether people who have ecological information regarding the negative impact of their recreational behavior on penguins’ stress will choose to remain farther away from the penguins to avoid that impact although this option will reduce the personal benefits of their tourism experience.


Factors Determining the Spatial Distribution of Shore Anglers in South Africa

Inshore line fish stocks are severely depleted in South Africa. Although management efforts have addressed pressures from the commercial and subsistence sectors, management of the recreational sector still needs to be addressed. Evidence suggests that spatial management measures would be more successful than traditional size and bag limits. In order to inform a spatial approach, this study investigated the determinants of temporal and spatial variability in angler distribution around the coast.


    Economic Value of the Kogelberg Coast, Western Cape, South Africa

    The amenity value of the Kogelberg Coast of South Africa was estimated on the basis of a survey of users, property data and park visitor statistics, as well as spatial data on coastal features, development and recreational activities. In addition to the permanent population of about 13 000, visitors spend an estimated 4.3 to 5.3 million visitor days per year, of which holiday home owners, other overnight visitors and day visitors account for about 22 percent, 56 percent and 21 percent, respectively. Coastal activities contributed 71 percent to all users’ enjoyment of the area.


    Why Anglers Fish Where They Do Knowing South Africa’s Preferred Fishing Spots Can Help Manage Fish Stocks

    Recreational angling in South Africa is not well monitored, even though recreational fishing contributes to over-exploitation of line fish stocks. This is because authorities don’t have the resources or political will to patrol the entire coastline. This study shows that anglers tend to seek out fishing spots where they are likely to catch the most fish. If enforcement officials target these ‘hotspots’, they can monitor whether anglers are adhering to their permit conditions, which limit the number and size of fish that they are allowed to catch. 


    Decisiones de localización y cambios regulatorios: el caso de la acuicultura en Chile

    Se estudia la evolución de la actividad acuícola en Chile y el impacto de los cambios regulatorios sobre las decisiones de localización de los centros de cultivo. Este estudio considera un análisis descriptivo del desarrollo espacio-temporal de los centros de cultivo. Enseguida, utilizando un panel de datos, se estimó un modelo de elección de sitios con el objetivo de explorar los factores determinantes de la elección de ubicación de los centros acuícolas. Los resultados del análisis sugieren la existencia de un claro patrón de desarrollo espacio-temporal de la acuicultura en Chile.


    ITQ Markets with administrative costs: An application to the industrial common sardine and anchovy fishery in Chile

    Using numerical simulations of the mixed common sardine and anchovy fishery of central-southern Chile, we study the effects of the distribution of administrative costs between the government and the fishing industry in an individual transferable quota system. Consistent with recent theoretical results, we find that the level and distribution of the administrative costs between the public and private sector affects the period-by-period equilibrium quota price and number of active vessels.


    Compliance in Artisanal Fisheries: Do Morality, Legitimacy, and Peer Effects Matter?

    We study the compliance behavior of artisanal fishermen in central-southern Chile. Our empirical analysis explores the role of individual morality, perception of legitimacy, and peer effects as determinant factors in the decision to violate regulations. We control for potential simultaneity bias in the peer effects variable. Our results find evidence that moral standing, peer effects, and legitimacy considerations are important for fishermen’s compliance decisions. Policy implications to improve compliance with regulations in artisanal fisheries are discussed.


    Quota Compliance in TURFs: An Experimental Analysis on Complementarities of Formal and Informal Enforcement with Changes in Abundance

    We explore the effects of different enforcement mechanisms, including formal (external), informal (local), and both together, on individual compliance behavior under a system of territorial use rights in fisheries (TURFs). Our design considers different stock abundance levels and the effect that such differences may exert on extraction decisions and compliance behavior. The analysis is based on a framed field experiment conducted with artisanal fishers in central-southern Chile.


    Marine Protected Areas in Artisanal Fisheries: A Spatial Bio-economic Model Based on Observations in Costa Rica and Tanzania

    In many lower-income countries, the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) involves significant opportunity costs for artisanal fishers, reflected in changes in how they allocate their labor in response to the MPA. The resource economics literature rarely addresses such labor allocation decisions of artisanal fishers and how, in turn, these contribute to the impact of MPAs on fish stocks, yield, and income.


    Marine Protected Areas: Lessons from Costa Rica and Tanzania

    Both Tanzania’s and Costa Rica’s beaches provide important nesting sites for endangered sea turtles. Poaching of eggs by local people for food or for sale presents a major threat to these species, as do other predators. This harvesting of eggs in MPAs, and throughout Costa Rica, remains illegal, but enforcement on long beaches proves difficult. Both countries have active organizations that attempt to reduce this poaching, sometimes involving moving nests.


    Assessment of the Potential Biomass Supply from Crop Residues in China

    Using a mathematical programming model, this study estimates the potential biomass supply from crop residues in China at various exogenously-given biomass prices and identified the areas that are likely to produce crop residues. The analysis indicated that China can potentially produce about 153.0-244.2 million dry metric tons of crop residues per year when biomass prices are larger than $90 per metric ton.


    Trade and resources: Welfare effects of the Lake Victoria fisheries boom

    We examine the welfare implications of the Tanzanian fisheries boom resulting from Lake Victoria Nile perch exports during 1993–2008. In the literature, there are two opposing views on the effect of fish trade: some argue that fish trade can act as an engine of growth, while others contend that trade in fish negatively affects food security, local economies and incomes of the poor.


    Using Taxes to Deter Illegal Fishing in ITQ Systems

    We study the effects of different tax schemes used in fisheries management in combination with an individual transferable quota system. We focus on the effects of taxes on equilibrium quota prices and on violations under the assumption that enforcement to induce compliance is imperfect and costly.


    Efficiency Costs of Social Objectives in Tradable Permit Programs

    Objectives of tradable permit programs are often broader than internalizing an externality and improving economic efficiency. Many programs are designed to accommodate community, cultural, and other non-efficiency goals through restrictions on trading. However, restrictions can decrease economic efficiency gains. We use a policy experiment from the Alaska halibut and sablefish tradable permit program, which includes both restricted and unrestricted permits, to develop one of the few empirical measurements of the costs of meeting non-efficiency goals.


    Using Taxes to Deter Illegal Fishing in ITQ Systems

    This paper studies the effects of different tax schemes used in fishery management in combination with an Individual Transferable Quota (ITQ) system. It focuses on the effects of taxes on equilibrium quota prices and violations under the assumption that enforcement to induce compliance is imperfect and costly. The use of taxes is motivated by the regulator’s need to recover costs for enforcement activities.


    Who should set the total allowable catch? Social preferences and legitimacy in fisheries management institutions

    This article presents a decision-making model based on situations that are typically encountered in fisheries management when setting the total allowable quota. The model allows assessing the differences in outcomes when different management institutions make the decision under uncertain conditions. Social preferences are considered to measure the social expected costs raised by different institutions.


    Assessing Stakeholder Adaptive Capacity to Salmon Aquaculture in Norway

    This paper explores the socio-ecological effects of increased aquaculture/farmed fish production, around the island group of Frøya in Trøndelag, Norway, as a result of new licenses accorded to the industry. This is investigated from a stakeholder perspective by assessing the adaptive capacity of selected stakeholder groups through workshops combining Scenario Analysis, Systems Thinking and Bayesian Belief Network and by developing conceptual frameworks and structural diagrams that visualize the perceived effects of the industry on the given stakeholder system.


    Estimating present and future profits within the Namibian hake industry: a bio-economic analysis

    Namibia's fishing industry is managed using a system of fishing rights and individual fishing quotas. This property rights system was intended to encourage the local fishing industry to exploit the resource responsibly. Unfortunately, unintended perverse incentives have promoted induced overcapacity and inefficient use of vessels. In combination with inconsistent quota allocations, the result has been persistent pressure on the already depleted biological resource. This paper uses a bio-economic model to estimate actual and potential profits in Namibia's hake fishery.


    Spatial decisions and livelihoods of small-scale fisheries in Costa Rica

    Small-scale fishing constitutes the main source of marine products and a central component of local livelihoods for poor families in coastal areas of Costa Rica. This country has been defining marine reserves, and fishermen are believed to be amongst the most prominent opponents of such policies, given the potential costs that entails the lost access of fishing areas of traditional use. However, it seems that this potential economic impact would depend on the livelihoods diversification, and the spatial definition of closures, among others.


    Survival analysis of the effect ISA virus in exports of Atlantic salmon in Chile

    We analyzed the reduction in exportation levels of the enterprises which have been working with the Chilean Atlantic Salmon, following the outbreak of ISA virus (ISAv) in 2007. We used a Duration Econometric Model for assessing the risk and survival of the enterprises. Also were determined the factors that explained the reduction of exportation levels, through the Proportional Risk Weibull Model. The results shows that the enterprises affected with ISAv have greater probability of decreasing their exportations.


    Economic and Environmental interactions between salmon aquaculture and artisanal fisheries: “An Application of Reloncavi estaury”

    A bio-socio-economic model was developed to analyze the economic and environmental interactions between the aquaculture activity and artisanal fisheries related to the seed settlement of Mytilus Chilensis that is realized in the Reloncaví Fjord. Meaning by economic interactions the effects of the action of both productivities activities has on the employment and production variables of this sectors. And for environmental interactions the effect that has the aquaculture activity on the seed settlement activity, in terms of the uneaten food pellets (nutrients).


    The value of the Swedish eel fishery

    Traditional sectors such as agriculture and fishing often receive special treatment from policymakers because such sectors are perceived to be associated with traditional cultural public good values. However, these values are often difficult to measure and few attempts have been made to do so.


    Who should pay the administration costs of a ITQ system? An application base don numerical simulation.

    Using numerical simulations of the mixed common sardine and anchovy fishery of central-southern Chile, we study the effects of the distribution of administrative costs between the government and the fishing industry in an individual transferable quota system. Consistent with recent theoretical results, we find that the level and distribution of the administrative costs between the public and private sector affects the period-by-period equilibrium quota price and number of active vessels.


    An analysis of the structural changes in the offshore demersal hake (Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus) trawl fishery in South Africa

    The hake (Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus) directed offshore demersal trawl is the most economically important fishing sector in South Africa, generating 30,000 jobs and comprising more than 50% of fisheries value. The industry changed to long term rights (LTRA), allocated in 2006 for a 15 year period. This study investigates the structure of the industry half-way between allocations.


    Trade-off between benefits, distribution and employment in fisheries: An application to the artisanal fishery in common sardine and anchovy in the Bio-Bio Region

    This research analyzes the effect(s) of the reallocation quota among fishermen organizations which are associated to Artisanal Extractive Regime (RAE), upon the benefit distribution of those organizations, and the possible relationship or connect among this benefit distribution, the maximum benefit and the employment. In order to achieve this objective, Generating Techniques were used, which emerge as a subset of Multi-objective Programming. The implementation is based on data about Chilean sardine and anchovy from Biobio region, Chile, for 2011.


    Aquaculture Research

    Jorge Dresdner wrote an opinion article about research in Chilean aquaculture.


    Fishing Discards

    Jorge Dresdner wrote an opinion article about discards in Chilean fisheries.


    Field Experiments on Cooperative Management of Local Common Resources

    This project will use the tools of experimental economics to study behavioral issues related to both the protection of a common-pool resource from poaching by outsiders, and the enforcement of rules and norms to maintain compliance within a group.  The experiments are motivated by the Chilean abalone (loco) fishery and will be conducted in the field with members of local artisanal fishing organizations.


    Abalone conservation in the presence of drug use and corruption: implications for its management in South Africa

    The illegal exploitation of wild abalone in South Africa has been escalating since 1994, despite increased enforcement, leading to collapse in some sections of its range. South Africa banned all wild abalone fishing in 2008 but controversially reopened the fishery in 2010. This paper formulates a poacher’s model, taking into account the realities of the abalone terrain in South Africa – the high-value of abalone, use of recreational drugs, the prevalence of bribery, and corruption – to explore why poaching has not subsided.


    Effect of Social Networks on the Economic Performance of TURFs: The Case of the Artisanal Fisherman Organizations in Southern Chile

    The effect of social capital on the economic performance of artisanal  fishermen organizations that work under a Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries (TURF) system was tested using the social networks approach. The application was based on a sample of artisanal fishers organizations that extract the locally named “loco” (Concholepas concholepas) in Central-Southern Chile. Social networks were measured through organizations’ structural properties and their bonding, linking, and bridging relationships. Economic performance was measured through per capita income.