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EfD Ethiopia Center Report 2011/12

This report presents EfD Ethiopia/Environmental Economics Policy Forum for Ethiopia, its members and work during 2011/12. For a free hardcopy, please send an email to:


Magnitude and Pattern of Osteoporotic Fractures among Adults in Tigrai, Ethiopia: A Retrospective Hospital Based

Osteoporotic fractures are devastating public health problems due to significant morbidity, mortality, and the socioeconomic burden. In Ethiopia, the weight of such fractures is often underestimated due to lack of epidemiological data. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude and pattern of osteoporotic fractures among adults admitted to zonal hospitals in Tigrai, North Ethiopia.


Harnessing Climate Finance for Climate Protection and Sustainable Development in Africa

So far Africa has benefited little from climate finance as compared to other continents with emerging economies. Climate projects are distributed unevenly across regions as well as among developing countries. This is partly due to lack of trained manpower in some of these countries and too restrictive criteria of most of the climate fund projects and programs that are designed to the disadvantage of Africa.


Trust, tenure insecurity, and land certification in rural Ethiopia

This paper assesses the impact of a landcertification program in Ethiopia on the level of interpersonal and institutional trust among households in the Amhara region. The landcertification program is designed to enhance landtenure security of farmers, by maintaining (egalitarian) status quo land distribution and equity concerns.


Clean Fuel Saving Technology Adoption in Urban Ethiopia

The heavy dependence and inefficient utilization of biomass resources have contributed to the depletion of forest resources in Ethiopia, while the use of traditional cooking technology has also been linked to indoor air pollution and poor health. In response, the government and other institutions have pushed for the adoption of new cooking technologies, with limited success.


‘Ripple’ Effects in South African House Prices

This paper analyses the ‘ripple’ effect of house prices in large-, medium- and small-sized houses of five major metropolitan areas of South Africa—namely, Cape Town, Durban Unicity, Greater Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth/Uitenhage and Pretoria—based on available quarterly data covering the period of 1966:Q1 to 2010:Q1.


Climate Conventions and Africa/Ethiopia

Climate change is one of the main problems affecting the global environment which is critical to human welfare. Although the least developed countries (LDCs) in general and Africa in particular contribute the least to the problem, they are the most affected, with reasons varying from lacking resources to cope, immense poverty, and that many LDCs are located in regions where severe weather will hit the most.


The impact of shadow prices and farmers' impatience on the allocation of a multipurpose renewable resource in Ethiopia

In a mixed farming system in which farmyard manure (FYM) is considered an important multipurpose renewable resource that can be used to enhance soil organic matter, provide additional income and supply household energy, soil fertility depletion could take place within the perspective of the household allocation pattern of FYM. This paper estimates a system of FYM allocation regressions to examine the role of returns to FYM and farmers’ impatience on the propensity to allocate FYM to different uses.


Integrating Renewable Energy and Climate Change Policies: Exploring Policy Options for Africa

Lack of access to energy services is one of the main constraints to economic development in Africa. Only about 31% of the population of Sub-Saharan Africa has access to electricity, with 14% access rate in rural areas. Compounding the challenge, traditional biomass supplies up to 85% of primary energy supply, and accounts for 80% of energy consumption. With limited energy efficiency, installed generation capacity and weak institutions and energy sector governance, energy security in Africa has become a critical concern.


Household-Level Consumption in Urban Ethiopia: The Effects of a Large Food Price Shock

We use survey data to investigate how urban households in Ethiopia coped with the food price shock in 2008. Qualitative data indicate that the high food price inflation was by far the most adverse economic shock between 2004 and 2008, and that a significant proportion of households had to adjust food consumption in response. Regression results indicate that households with low asset levels, and casual workers, were particularly adversely affected by high food prices.


Fossil Fuels in Africa in the Context of a Carbon Constrained Future

Africa has considerable reserves of fossil fuels of all kinds: oil, coal and natural gas. Much of this resource is either utilised outside of Africa or some of the resource is not developed at all for use within the continent. Meanwhile, there are concerns that the future of fossil fuel use will need to take place in the context of a low carbon development pathway.


Assessing the Functioning of Land Rental Markets in Ethiopia

Although a large theoretical literature discusses the possible inefficiency of sharecropping contracts, empirical evidence on this phenomenon has been ambiguous at best. Household‐level fixed‐effect estimates from about 8,500 plots operated by households that own and sharecrop land in the Ethiopian highlands provide support for the hypothesis of Marshallian inefficiency.


Importance of Irrigated Agriculture to the Ethiopian Economy: Capturing the direct net benefits of irrigation

Irrigation development has been identified as an important tool to stimulate economic growth and rural development, and is considered as a cornerstone of food security and poverty reduction in Ethiopia. While a lot of effort is being exerted towards irrigation development, little attempt is being made to quantify the contribution of irrigation to national income. This study is an attempt in that direction by quantifying the actual and expected contribution of irrigation to the Ethiopian national economy for the 2005/2006 and 2009/2010 cropping seasons using the adjusted net gross margin analysis.


Child Malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

The objective of this study was to estimate levels of and identify factors contributing to child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. A cross sectional survey was used in rural communities of four zones of Tigray.


Tenure security, resource poverty, public programs, and household plot-level conservation investments in the highlands of northern Ethiopia

Land degradation poses a serious problem for the livelihoods of rural producers. Furthermore, there is rarely enough private investment taking place to commensurate the scale of the problem. This article examines the role of tenure insecurity, resource poverty, risk and time preferences, and community-led land conservation on differentiated patterns of household investment in land conservation in northern Ethiopia.


Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey.


Land and water institutions in the Blue Nile Basin: Setups and gaps for improved land and water management

This study undertook an assessment and gap analysis of the institutional arrangements for improved land and water management in the Tana and Beles Sub-basins highlands of the Blue Nile Basin. We explored the mandates and design features of the major land- and water-related institutional arrangements. Focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and a literature review were used in the analysis.