The adoption of new agricultural technologies is instrumental in the process of adaptation to climate change. Yet, in eastern Africa the adoption rate have been very small. Besides institutional explanations, the recent literature has pointed out at the role of impatience we explore the relative importance of this explanation vis-à-vis an alternative explanation based on sharing pressure within social networks. A combination of lab and field experiments will be used to address theses questions.
The Costa Rican PSA Program is widely cited in discussions about REDD+, including as a reference on the costs of implementing PES and the challenges of generating additionality and livelihood co-benefits (poverty reduction). As such, it is critical to document and extract lessons from the variation in payment levels and targeting criteria employed by Costa Rica´s National Forestry Fund (F
Climate change in Ethiopia will not only increase rainfall variability and lead to more frequent droughts and higher risk of rain generated floods, it will also continue to intensify the degradation of soil fertility that causes agricultural productivity to decline. Adaptation measures that build upon improved water management and enhance soil fertility are fundamental in boosting overall resilience to climate change in the Blue Nile Basin.
Understanding farmers’ responses to climate change is fundamental for the design of adaptation strategies in developing countries.
Funded by the Moore Foundation, this three-year project is a collaboration with The Nature Conservancy (TNC).
Although groundwater depletion is a global phenomenon, India faces the challenge in its severest of forms. Studies by India’s Central Ground Water Board suggest that in some parts of the country, water tables are receding at 1 meter per year and that the majority of water resources in Northwest and South India are overexploited. Furthermore, two-thirds of India’s 1.2 billion people are involved in agricultural work and are therefore especially vulnerable to groundwater depletion and related climate fluctuations.
Can irrigation mitigate the impacts of weather shocks on child health? Evidence from household-level irrigation adoption in India [with Eeshani Kandpal (World Bank Group) and Kathy Baylis (University of Illinois)]:
This project uses an existing large survey dataset to study housing and transportation issues in Beijing. The study is conducted together with Josh Linn, Lunyu Xie, and Jintao Xu.
Green growth in China: A literature Review. In the summer of 2013, Energy Foundation’s China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) awarded a grant to RFF to review the existing literature on green growth and to hold a green growth forum in China.
The project has the goal of providing more comprehensive and reliable information to climate scientists and politicians who must make decisions about climate actions. It will rely on collecting existing knowledge from databases and will generate new knowledge where gaps are identified.
The general objective is to estimate, from an interdisciplinary perspective, the economic and social impact of changes in water availability due to climate change.
This project is funded by IDRC’s Climate Change and Water program (CCW).
Ecosystems provide a range of essential services which underpin human well-being (e.g.
Project Progress Report
This research project will experimentally investigate the actual consequences of the Maskin auction
and the other two types of auctions, with both sealed-bid and dynamic-bid design, in the context of
subsidy allocation for carbon reduction.
This is a non-EfD project that aims to evaluate how institutions can be crafted within both CCFs and REDD+ systems to achieve climate change, livelihood and poverty reduction goals using focus groups, field-based lab experiments and field-based stated preference experiments.
Project contribute to reducing vulnerability to climate change and to help promoting the development of adaptation strategies that guarantee the human right to water for poor villagers in rural areas.
A majority of the rural poor in Tanzania derive their income from agriculture. The most important input in the agricultural production is labour and the rain water. This situation implies that, very large proportion of population in the country is vulnerable to climatic change and variability. At the national level there exist various interventions in the agriculture sector to facilitate increased efficiency and productivity.
Tanzania is largely an agrarian economy where over 70 percent of the population lives in the rural areas. The mainstay of the rural economy is agriculture and livestock keeping, and the agriculture production relies almost exclusively on the rainfall. As a result, changes in the rainfall pattern have a direct and immediate impact on the agriculture production, which in turn impacts on the household welfare through income and consumption.
The project estimate to what extent migration movements within a country are explained by occurrence of extreme weather events in Guatemala.
This research project will contribute to sustainability and poverty reduction agenda as SLM practices can enable farmers to become resilient to climate change by improving ecosystem services and functions, increasing agricultural productivity and enhancing food security. Such practices could also help mitigate climate change which is an important added advantage.
Work by RFF researchers and colleagues shows how preventing the release of “blue carbon” stored in mangroves, sea grasses, and salt marshes may be an effective way to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the air.
Climate change poses a serious challenge to Kenya’s socioeconomic development as the key drivers of its economy – including agriculture, forestry and fisheries among others – are affected by climate change. This study will address various issues including how climate variability has affected food security in Kenya, the vulnerability of different populations in Kenya and the key policy options for mitigating the effect of climate variability on food security and vulnerability.
Kenya is a rapidly growing country, with energy demands increasing annually. Over-reliance on biomass energy within households has resulted in adverse environmental effects. Forest cover has fallen to 6%, and as a result, water levels in rivers and dams have also fallen leading to an inconsistent electricity supply. This study seeks to explore energy conservation in Kenya using quantitative methods and an established data set.
Although African countries’ GHG emissions are comparatively low, the effects of climate change are still widespread and a reduction in emissions is crucial. In a bid to reduce emissions, there has been a shift towards renewable energy such as wind, hydro-electric and of course, solar energy in Kenya. This study will explore adoption of solar technology in Kenyan households using quantitative methods.
Trees in forested and agricultural landscapes are particularly important because they provide high values of environmental services and biodiversity. In this proposed study we want to establish the link between deforestation, time allocation to fuel-wood collection and agriculture. We will use a non-separable (non-recursive mode) to test the participation of households in fuel-wood collection and farming activities using data from Central and Southern Tanzania. We would like to analyze how labour time, gender composition of the household, seasonality and agro-ecological differences affect household labour allocation decisions
Funded by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), this four-year $1 million project aims to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of REDD+ policy in MesoAmerica by developing two sets of decision tools.
REDD – Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation – is a new form of payment for environmental services that has to potential to fund forest protection in Tanzania.
A highly selected interdisciplinary group of experts working on water and climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean met in Panama City, Panama from Thursday, September 29th to Saturday, October 1st, 2011.
Con el proyecto se busca promover la creación de capacidad de investigación, análisis y la evaluación del impacto del cambio climático y agua, utilizando las herramientas de la economía ambiental
REDD – Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation – is a new form of payment for environmental services that has to potential to fund forest protection in Tanzania. REDD programs would build on the Government of Tanzania’s introduction of new forest laws that have enabled the implementation of Participatory Forest Management (PFM)Because any policy that slows forest degradation does so by limiting resource access bynearby forest-dependent communities, implementing REDD will require understanding those communities forest management/use decisions and their likely response to REDD policies, even if REDD policies funnel monies to those communities.
CINTERA is designed to improve knowledge of ecosystem response to eutrophication and management of eutrophication in different marine fjord ecosystems and zones in Norway and Chile.
This research will examine the impact of adaptation strategies on farmers’ food production. We will investigate whether there are differences in the food production functions of farm households that adopted adaptation strategies and those that did not adopt.
The proposed project seeks to contribute substantively to climate change and community forest management policies and advance the literature by analyzing the relationship between common property forest management (CPFM) in Ethiopia and climate policy within the context of the UN Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD) and proposing instruments for channeling REDD benefits to households.
This project explores the effects and the role of safety nets in adaptation to climate change in Central America.
The objective of this project is to estimate to what extent migration movements within a country are explained by occurrence of extreme weather events in general and more specifically by floods.
An applied economics survey among South African subsistence farmers
Production risk is one of the quintessential features of agriculture in Ethiopia. Unpredictable weather can expose farm households to significant production uncertainty and serious hardship. Under harsh climatic and agro-ecological conditions, this can result in food insecurity and famine. During the last 40 years, Ethiopia has experienced many severe droughts leading to production levels that fell short of basic subsistence levels for many farm households (REST and NORAGRIC 1995, p. 137). Harvest failure due to drought is the most important cause of risk-related hardship of Ethiopian rural households, with adverse effects on farm household consumption and welfare (Dercon 2004, 2005). When facing prospects of harvest failure, ex ante farm production decisions, such as crop or varietal choice, remain a part of risk-management strategies (Just and Candler 1985; Fafchamps 1992; Chavas and Holt 1996; Dercon 1996; Smale et al. 1998). In dry environments, farmers’ reliance on crop biodiversity is an essential part of ex ante risk management strategies. Thus, the conservation of relevant germplasms is instrumental to hedge against weather related uncertainty.
Scepticism with respect to the consequences of climate change is declining worldwide as this issue takes a prominent place on global political agenda. However, the overall extent and magnitude of climate change consequences are still extremely uncertain. As such, any economic analysis of climate change must take cognisance of the economics of risk and uncertainty.
Tropical deforestation, degradation and forest clearing are important contributors to green house emissions. Some studies approximate that as much as 25% of all carbon dioxide arise from deforestation and degradation.
In this project we are investigate the trade off between countries’ investments in adaptation and mitigation. We study how the investment behaviour in these two types of investments differs between types of countries (where countries differ in terms of vulnerability).
The research project led by Dr Stephanie Giamporcaro focuses on Environmental Finance and Environmental Investment. The research program aims thus to explore how environmentally responsible investment approaches are implemented currently in South Africa and how the implementation of these strategies in the country’s financial and investment sector can be facilitated in order to promote a sustainable growth in South Africa and a sustainable use of natural resources .
This paper aims at assessing the scope and the desirability of increasing tax on fossil fuel in Tanzania in the context of environmental fiscal reforms. A.F Mkenda, J.K Mduma and W.M Ngasamiaku are the lead authors in this paper. The paper will attempt to tackle three critical issues namely; (i) the extent that tax on fuel can boost government revenue in line with the quest for fiscal reform, (ii) the extent that tax on fuel can lead to reduction in fuel consumption, taking into account the existing substitution possibilities and (iii) the distributional impact of taxation on fuel, particularly its impact on the poor.
This project analyze the determinants of farmers adaptation to climate change using field experiments to reflect the main characteristics of damages associated with climate change under uncertainty, ambiguity , role of communication and monetary incentives.
The vulnerabilities of coastal communities have increased in recent years, as more people have to live in hazard-prone areas due to population growth. The east coast of India is one such vulnerable area that faces the combined challenge of climate risks and poverty. This study identifies the environmental and socioeconomic factors contributing to the resilience building that helped the communities in the study area to cope with cyclone Phailin in 2013 and cyclone Hudhud in 2014. We used questionnaire surveys, GIS and satellite data, and econometric analysis to identify these features.
Over the past three decades, marine resource management has shifted conceptually from top-down sectoral approaches towards the more systems-oriented multi-stakeholder frameworks of integrated coastal management and ecosystem-based conservation. However, the successful implementation of such frameworks is commonly hindered by a lack of cross-disciplinary knowledge transfer, especially between natural and social sciences. This review represents a holistic synthesis of three decades of change in the oceanography, biology and human dimension of False Bay, South Africa.
Ocean Acidification (OA) has become one of the most studied global stressors in marine science worldwide during the last fifteen years. Despite the variety of studies on the biological effects of OA with marine commercial species, estimations of these impacts over consumers’ preferences have not been studied in detail, compromising our ability to undertake an assessment of some market and economic impacts resulting from OA at local scales. Here, we use a novel and interdisciplinary approach to fill this gap.
We pair a county-level panel of annual agricultural production with daily weather outcomes to measure the effects of temperature fluctuations on total agricultural output value of farming, forestry, animal husbandry and fishing in China.
This paper presents a joint estimation of willingness to pay for conservation activities aimed to preserve the flow of ecosystem services provided by a marine protected area network and respondents´ personal discount rate using a contingent valuation survey. It contributes to the literature on identifying people´s discount rates moving beyond the use of the exponential schemes, to include a hyperbolic discount rate through variations in the timing and duration of the provision of public goods.
Ocean acidification (OA) is one of the largest emerging and significant environmental threats for the aquaculture industry, jeopardizing its role as an alternative for supporting food security. Moreover, market conditions, characterized by price volatility and low value-added products, could exacerbate the industry’s vulnerability to OA.