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Climate Change


Climate tax on meat and milk results in less greenhouse gases

A climate tax corresponding to €60/ton CO2eq on meat and milk could reduce greenhouse gas emissions from European agriculture by around seven per cent. If the land made available is used for bioenergy production, the decrease in emissions can be six times greater. This is shown by the researchers Kristina Mohlin, Stefan Wirsenius and Fredrik Hedenus in an article published in the scientific journal Climatic Change.


How can people interact to solve environmental issues?

Plans for the research program Human Cooperation to Manage Natural Resources were elaborated on January 17-19 at Indiana University in Bloomington. Project partners are Nobel laureate Elinor Ostrom's research group at Indiana University, Resources for the Future in Washington, and the Environmental Economics Unit, University of Gothenburg.


    Upcoming climate change special issue edited by Berck

    A special Climate Change issue of the Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research will be published on January 10, 2011. Peter Berck, SJ Hall Professor and EfD Research Associate, is the guest editor of the special issue entitled "Climate Change Challenge: Policy Perspectives" which include several EfD authors.


    EfD Ethiopia co-organized African Regional Dialogue on forests, governance and climate change

    Women’s participation in decision making and strong land tenure rights and governance are essential if REDD+ and other climate change mitigation and adaptation measures are to achieve climate goals and provide local benefits. This was a key message from over 80 delegates at the Africa Regional Dialogue, which was organized by EfD Ethiopia together with Rights and Resources Initiative as a pre-event to the seventh African Development Forum.


    Seminar: Consequences of Copenhagen

    The EfD-Central America presented on March 23th, the seminar "Consequences of Copenhagen: What are the challenges and opportunities?" This was the fist seminar in a series given in Spanish, and hence, titled "SEMINARIO: Consecuencias de Copenhague".


    Research-policy dialogue improves drinking water management

    “To do high-quality research, you need to find out what policy makers need and nurture the interaction,” says Maria Angelica Naranjo, EfD researcher in Central America. Her research colleagues Roger Madrigal and Francisco Alpízar are exploring why some Costa Rican communities are successful in drinking water management while others are not. Policy makers and local communities are already using some of the researchers’ recommendations to bring change.


    Climate change lecture leading to the Copenhagen Summit

    A public lecture on climate change given by Professor Thomas Sterner, organized by EfD in Ethiopia, has been attended by His Excellency Dr Aberra Deressa, State Minister of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MoARD) and Chairman of the National Climate Change Forum of Ethiopia on the 2nd November 2009. The lecture was attended by 45 members from federal and regional governmental offices, non-governmental organizations, donors and embassies.


    Climate change policy research in Tanzania

    Mark Purdon of the University of Toronto (Canada) carried -out research in collaboration at EfD Tanzania on climate change policy. The subject is the performance of existing projects under the Kyoto Protocol’s carbon offset system Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) operating in Tanzania and their contribution to sustainable regional development, with a focus on land governance.


    Strategies for adapting to climate change in Costa Rica

    Read María A. Naranjo' opinion article (Estrategias de adaptación al cambio climático en Costa Rica) in "La Nación" (January 28th), related to the EfD Central America Project "Small Farmers' Determinants of Private Adaptation to Climate Change Strategies" (Spanish only).


    Saving Water in Schools: Evidence on the Use of Smart Water Meters and Behavioural Insights

    Cape Town has been facing the worst three-year drought in over a century. The situation has become dire as dam levels have dropped to unprecedented lows and households have been restricted to 50 litres of municipal water per person per day. Reducing unsustainable water consumption habits is difficult due to the time lag between water consumption and information reception about volumes consumed. Smart water metering can address this challenge and create awareness around water usage.


    Effects of heat on the incomes of workers in the informal sector

    The number of hot days is steadily on the rise and projected to increase at all land locations in almost all climate models. Poverty pockets in developing countries are expected to be harshly hit due to climate change compared to not so poor areas. Heat stress is a grave threat to human health and, therefore, to productivity and welfare. The impacts of high temperatures on informal-sector workers who are among the poor in developing counties, and are likely more exposed to high temperature than any other group with the exception of agricultural workers, is largely unknown.


    What happens when one no longer gets ecosystem services payments?

    As programs of payment for ecosystem or environmental services (PES) are rising in number, there is a need to understand effects of PES on providers’ motivations and, in turn, behaviors.  ‘Crowding in’ of pro-environmental motivations is possible − although a significant literature has expressed concern with the ‘crowding out’ of such motivations by external interventions. Yet empirical research is scarce concerning any such ‘crowding’ by PES − in either direction. Theoretical hopes and concerns are clear but, to date, the related empirical evidence is limited.


    Adaptation mechanisms against negative effects of weather on human capital formation

    High school students are at risk: high temperatures decrease academic performance and daily school attendance. Can we mitigate these negative effects through better policies? This project proposes to answer this question by collecting and analyzing comparative data from Latin American countries and exploring the mechanisms under which existing public policies can mitigate the adverse effects of weather on schooling outcomes.


    Female microenterprise creation and business models for private sector distribution of low-cost renewable off-grid LED lighting

    The overall goal of this project it to evaluate whether different business models effectively scale up the distribution of affordable renewable lighting to the poorest of the poor in developing country contexts. It also aims to evaluate the impact of empowering females in poor rural villages via participation in renewable energy enterprises and spillover effects on households’ welfare.


    Can protected areas reduce the vulnerability to climate related disasters?

    The main goal of this project is to test whether protected areas (PAs) reduce the likelihood of climate related disasters such as floods, landslides and storms, in Costa Rica and Honduras. This evaluation study is expected to provide empirical evidence on the role of PAs in providing hydrological services to avoid the occurrence and damages of floods and landslides as a consequence of extreme weather events.


    Determinants of Climate Adaptation and the Role of Information Provision in Overcoming Barriers to Adaptation

    The project aims to better understand behavioral determinants and other factors impacting climate change adaptation and technology uptake by households in Eastern and Southern Africa. The results will help in designing relevant policies for successful adaptation, thus alleviating poverty and stabilizing incomes in the face of increasing threats from climate change effects.


    Air quality and household welfare in Asian mega-cities

    The goal of this project is to generate evidence on households' willingness to pay (WTP) for improved air quality in urban Asia. This evidence is both critically important and timely because numerous cities in Asia now have alarming levels of air pollution.


    The Impact of the System of Rice Intensification on Small-holder Farmers’ Welfare: Does Partial Adoption Matter?

    This study will assess the determinants of partial adoption dynamics and its impact implications on yield and farm profit among rice farmers in Morogoro region of Tanzania using a unique panel data. We will build on the previously collected data set from the same farmers to gather additional information on the adoption choices and dynamics, but also build up a panel data set for a relatively cleaner identification strategy of the impact of System of Rice Intensification (SRI).


    The Effects of Urban Rail Transit on Air Quality: New Evidence from Multiple Chinese Cities

    In this project, we investigate the effect of urban rail transit expansions in Chinese cities on air quality. We also compare the magnitude of effects across cities and identify the factors behind the potentially heterogeneous effects. By identifying these factors, this project is expected to help policy makers predict the effects of potential new rail systems or expansions on air pollution.


    Group decisions over the allocation of REDD payments: A natural experiment from Tanzania

    The goal of this project is to link frameworks of community or group resource management rules and of individual incentives for resource conservation in response to policy to inform and improve the success of REDD implementation in Tanzania.  The project’s direct connection to Tanzania’s policy process through collaboration with TFCG will expand the role of environmental economics capacity within that policy process and promote effective policies to address climate change through REDD.


    Gender Dimensions of Natural Resource

    The research programme explores the overall theme of Gender Dimensions of Natural Resource Use, Farming and Food Adequacy: Climate Change Risk, Vulnerability and Adaptation. The broad aim of this research programme is to study how the well-being (in terms of food adequacy) of male and female headed households is influenced by reliance on farming and natural resources. The research will also investigate how climate uncertainty affects male and female headed households’ decisions regarding farming versus natural resources (living from ecosystem services) use. Lastly, the research we propose to do will also focus on vulnerability, adaptation and constraints to adaptation due to climate variability. 


    Energy demand, choice and distributional effects of fuel taxes in Kenya

    The specific objectives of study include, a review of literature on energy demand, choice and distributional effects of energy fuel taxes in Kenya; examine the current demand for energy and determine the key drivers of consumption; evaluate how household make choice in energy consumption; estimate distributional effects of energy fuel taxes in Kenya and lastly provide 


    Influence of climatic factors and climate change adaptation strategies on farm productive efficiency in Kenya

    The goal of this study is to support poverty reduction through assessing farm level efficiency in a changing climate and the impact of climatic factors and climate change adaptation strategies on farm productive efficiency in different parts of Kenya. The study will also propose probable policy recommendations to improve productive efficiency and climate change adaptation strategies. 


    Automobile demand analysis in Beijing

    The overall goal of this research is to: (1) Evaluate the externality costs from transportation in terms of congestion and vehicle emissions (2) Analyze the factors that influence individual’s transportation mode choice (in vehicle time, out vehicle time, automobile ownership et al) (3) Analyze the vehicle factors that influence in individual’s vehicle purchase decision (price, fuel consumption, size et al)? We believe the case study of Beijing will yield insights more generally transferable to scholar and practitioner theories about the role of environmental policy instrument in reducing negative externality in the field of urban transportation. 


    Combining state of the art science with practitioner´s wisdom in the design of PES schemes: Lessons from the Costa Rican experience

    Our goal is to learn about the Costa Rican experience from the inside, working closely with FONAFIFO staff to understand how they have sought to improve efficiency and to explore  options for setting payment levels and targeting to increase efficiency, without missing the myriad of norms, rules, and other obstacles that program managers might face in the implementation of, for example, procurement auctions. 


    Estimating external costs of transportation in Beijing - air pollution costs and congestion costs

    This project aims at (1) Documenting  the  main  urban transportation challenges in China, public  policies in this field, and evaluating the effectiveness of these policies; (2) Improving the assessment of  transportation externality costs in China (with a focus on Beijing) based on a large scale urban household survey and a proper estimation methodology; (3) Developing an analytical and empirical framework which links private automobile ownership and behavioural transportation modal choice to enhance the understanding of individual’s travel demand choice, automobile purchase and use decisions; (4) Building capacities in China based on quantative and qualitative assessments of  decision-making process in transportation policies to reach a better understanding of alternative policy instruments for reducing negative externalities from urban transportation.


    The Value of Automobile Travel Time and Its Congestion Policy Implications

    The overall objective of the study is to provide the value of time estimates for automobile users on a congested road using a stated preference survey. The purpose of this study is to obtain the public preferences for time savings on a congested road, which we believe could provide important policy inputs for ongoing congestion pricing discussions in Beijing.