A climate tax corresponding to €60/ton CO2eq on meat and milk could reduce greenhouse gas emissions from European agriculture by around seven per cent. If the land made available is used for bioenergy production, the decrease in emissions can be six times greater. This is shown by the researchers Kristina Mohlin, Stefan Wirsenius and Fredrik Hedenus in an article published in the scientific journal Climatic Change.
Plans for the research program Human Cooperation to Manage Natural Resources were elaborated on January 17-19 at Indiana University in Bloomington. Project partners are Nobel laureate Elinor Ostrom's research group at Indiana University, Resources for the Future in Washington, and the Environmental Economics Unit, University of Gothenburg.
An overview on the climate change negotiations under the UNFCCC hosted in in Cancun, Mexico
A special Climate Change issue of the Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research will be published on January 10, 2011. Peter Berck, SJ Hall Professor and EfD Research Associate, is the guest editor of the special issue entitled "Climate Change Challenge: Policy Perspectives" which include several EfD authors.
Women’s participation in decision making and strong land tenure rights and governance are essential if REDD+ and other climate change mitigation and adaptation measures are to achieve climate goals and provide local benefits. This was a key message from over 80 delegates at the Africa Regional Dialogue, which was organized by EfD Ethiopia together with Rights and Resources Initiative as a pre-event to the seventh African Development Forum.
The EfD-Central America presented on March 23th, the seminar "Consequences of Copenhagen: What are the challenges and opportunities?" This was the fist seminar in a series given in Spanish, and hence, titled "SEMINARIO: Consecuencias de Copenhague".
“To do high-quality research, you need to find out what policy makers need and nurture the interaction,” says Maria Angelica Naranjo, EfD researcher in Central America. Her research colleagues Roger Madrigal and Francisco Alpízar are exploring why some Costa Rican communities are successful in drinking water management while others are not. Policy makers and local communities are already using some of the researchers’ recommendations to bring change.
A public lecture on climate change given by Professor Thomas Sterner, organized by EfD in Ethiopia, has been attended by His Excellency Dr Aberra Deressa, State Minister of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MoARD) and Chairman of the National Climate Change Forum of Ethiopia on the 2nd November 2009. The lecture was attended by 45 members from federal and regional governmental offices, non-governmental organizations, donors and embassies.
In February 2009, EEPC prepared and submitted a report commissioned by SFA’s Forest Carbon Management Office.
Kerri Brick, EfD research fellow, and Martine Visser, EfD research fellow and coordinator, presented papers on the economics of climate change mitigation at the 2009 South African Climate Change Summit, held in Johannesburg 3-6 March 2009.
Mark Purdon of the University of Toronto (Canada) carried -out research in collaboration at EfD Tanzania on climate change policy. The subject is the performance of existing projects under the Kyoto Protocol’s carbon offset system Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) operating in Tanzania and their contribution to sustainable regional development, with a focus on land governance.
Read María A. Naranjo' opinion article (Estrategias de adaptación al cambio climático en Costa Rica) in "La Nación" (January 28th), related to the EfD Central America Project "Small Farmers' Determinants of Private Adaptation to Climate Change Strategies" (Spanish only).
In Central America there are approximately 24,000 organizations responsible for providing water for domestic consumption (CBDWO). These organizations are key agents in the generation of human well-being and reduction of poverty in the region.
The CASCADE Project: supporting smallholder’s climate adaptation in Central America based on ecosystem approaches.
CASCADE project promotes adaptation to climate change in vulnerable communities of smallholder farmers in Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala, through Ecosystem-based Adaptation strategies (EbA).
Heterogeneous valuation and eco-efficiency of Laser Land Leveling in paddy production in the Mekong Delta
Climate change is one of environmental threats in agricultural activities; a sea level rise causing salinity or water scarcity will negatively affect agricultural production. Rice is the most important staple food in Asia; however, it is estimated about 15 million hectares of paddy production in lack of irrigation by 2025.
Cape Town has been facing the worst three-year drought in over a century. The situation has become dire as dam levels have dropped to unprecedented lows and households have been restricted to 50 litres of municipal water per person per day. Reducing unsustainable water consumption habits is difficult due to the time lag between water consumption and information reception about volumes consumed. Smart water metering can address this challenge and create awareness around water usage.
The number of hot days is steadily on the rise and projected to increase at all land locations in almost all climate models. Poverty pockets in developing countries are expected to be harshly hit due to climate change compared to not so poor areas. Heat stress is a grave threat to human health and, therefore, to productivity and welfare. The impacts of high temperatures on informal-sector workers who are among the poor in developing counties, and are likely more exposed to high temperature than any other group with the exception of agricultural workers, is largely unknown.
As programs of payment for ecosystem or environmental services (PES) are rising in number, there is a need to understand effects of PES on providers’ motivations and, in turn, behaviors. ‘Crowding in’ of pro-environmental motivations is possible − although a significant literature has expressed concern with the ‘crowding out’ of such motivations by external interventions. Yet empirical research is scarce concerning any such ‘crowding’ by PES − in either direction. Theoretical hopes and concerns are clear but, to date, the related empirical evidence is limited.
High school students are at risk: high temperatures decrease academic performance and daily school attendance. Can we mitigate these negative effects through better policies? This project proposes to answer this question by collecting and analyzing comparative data from Latin American countries and exploring the mechanisms under which existing public policies can mitigate the adverse effects of weather on schooling outcomes.
Female microenterprise creation and business models for private sector distribution of low-cost renewable off-grid LED lighting
The overall goal of this project it to evaluate whether different business models effectively scale up the distribution of affordable renewable lighting to the poorest of the poor in developing country contexts. It also aims to evaluate the impact of empowering females in poor rural villages via participation in renewable energy enterprises and spillover effects on households’ welfare.
The main goal of this project is to test whether protected areas (PAs) reduce the likelihood of climate related disasters such as floods, landslides and storms, in Costa Rica and Honduras. This evaluation study is expected to provide empirical evidence on the role of PAs in providing hydrological services to avoid the occurrence and damages of floods and landslides as a consequence of extreme weather events.
Determinants of Climate Adaptation and the Role of Information Provision in Overcoming Barriers to Adaptation
The project aims to better understand behavioral determinants and other factors impacting climate change adaptation and technology uptake by households in Eastern and Southern Africa. The results will help in designing relevant policies for successful adaptation, thus alleviating poverty and stabilizing incomes in the face of increasing threats from climate change effects.
The goal of this project is to generate evidence on households' willingness to pay (WTP) for improved air quality in urban Asia. This evidence is both critically important and timely because numerous cities in Asia now have alarming levels of air pollution.
The objectives of this research project are to analyse the effects of socioeconomic and institutional factors on land use change in Ethiopia and to assess and understand whether climate change has any role in the land use and land over changes in the country. The outcome of this research project is to reduce deforestation by improving land use planning in Ethiopia.
The Impact of the System of Rice Intensification on Small-holder Farmers’ Welfare: Does Partial Adoption Matter?
This study will assess the determinants of partial adoption dynamics and its impact implications on yield and farm profit among rice farmers in Morogoro region of Tanzania using a unique panel data. We will build on the previously collected data set from the same farmers to gather additional information on the adoption choices and dynamics, but also build up a panel data set for a relatively cleaner identification strategy of the impact of System of Rice Intensification (SRI).
In this project, we investigate the effect of urban rail transit expansions in Chinese cities on air quality. We also compare the magnitude of effects across cities and identify the factors behind the potentially heterogeneous effects. By identifying these factors, this project is expected to help policy makers predict the effects of potential new rail systems or expansions on air pollution.
How resilient are social ecological systems in the face of climate change? Evidence from rural drinking water in Central America
The project will provide a multi-country comparative analysis of Community-based Water Organiszation (CWOs) and their determinants of adaptive capacity and performance based on rich empirical data (i.e. 3 developing countries, 160 CWO and 7,000 households).
The goal of this project is to link frameworks of community or group resource management rules and of individual incentives for resource conservation in response to policy to inform and improve the success of REDD implementation in Tanzania. The project’s direct connection to Tanzania’s policy process through collaboration with TFCG will expand the role of environmental economics capacity within that policy process and promote effective policies to address climate change through REDD.
Understanding the determinants of adaptive behaviour and developing Disaster Risk Insurance for the Informal Sector
Many of Cape Town’s informal settlements are found in the low-lying flood-prone Cape Flats. These informal settlements are flooded annually during the wet, rainy season – resulting in damage to dwellings and property and causing a myriad of health problems as residents are forced to live in wet damp conditions, surrounded by pools of stagnant water.
The research programme explores the overall theme of Gender Dimensions of Natural Resource Use, Farming and Food Adequacy: Climate Change Risk, Vulnerability and Adaptation. The broad aim of this research programme is to study how the well-being (in terms of food adequacy) of male and female headed households is influenced by reliance on farming and natural resources. The research will also investigate how climate uncertainty affects male and female headed households’ decisions regarding farming versus natural resources (living from ecosystem services) use. Lastly, the research we propose to do will also focus on vulnerability, adaptation and constraints to adaptation due to climate variability.
This project aims to use low-cost and scalable behavioral-economic interventions to facilitate pro-environmental behavioural change in the Western Cape of South Africa. Specifically, the objective is to induce a reduction in electricity and water consumption across a large sample of residential homes.
The specific objectives of study include, a review of literature on energy demand, choice and distributional effects of energy fuel taxes in Kenya; examine the current demand for energy and determine the key drivers of consumption; evaluate how household make choice in energy consumption; estimate distributional effects of energy fuel taxes in Kenya and lastly provide
The goal of this study is to support poverty reduction through assessing the linkages between climate change, adaptation and food security; and propose probable policy recommendations to improve food security in face in climate change.
Influence of climatic factors and climate change adaptation strategies on farm productive efficiency in Kenya
The goal of this study is to support poverty reduction through assessing farm level efficiency in a changing climate and the impact of climatic factors and climate change adaptation strategies on farm productive efficiency in different parts of Kenya. The study will also propose probable policy recommendations to improve productive efficiency and climate change adaptation strategies.
The research project aims to assess taxes, subsidies, fees, and charges in connection with natural resources such as petroleum products, forest resources, fisheries and mining in Ethiopia. The contribution of environmental taxes, fees and charges to domestic revenue collection and their relative share in GDP will be reviewed.
Climate Change and Agricultural Productivity in Ethiopia: Vulnerability, Impact, Adaptation Options and Beyond
By broadening/extending the knowledge base of climate change and agricultural productivity in Ethiopia and enhancing informed policy/decision making at various levels, this research will contribute to poverty reduction and environmental sustainability.
Goal of this project is to contribute to the Ethiopian government’s efforts in identifying and prioritizing pro-poor policies and climate smart strategies in building climate-resilient communities and promoting a ‘green welfare’ in the country.
The goal of this project is to contribute to the fulfilment of the Ethiopian government’s efforts in reducing GHG emissions through cost effective instruments. It helps meet the target set in the GTP which explicitly acknowledges the role of building green economy for sustainability of growth as well as in the CRGE strategy which aims at reducing GHG emissions.
The overall goal of this research is to: (1) Evaluate the externality costs from transportation in terms of congestion and vehicle emissions (2) Analyze the factors that influence individual’s transportation mode choice (in vehicle time, out vehicle time, automobile ownership et al) (3) Analyze the vehicle factors that influence in individual’s vehicle purchase decision (price, fuel consumption, size et al)? We believe the case study of Beijing will yield insights more generally transferable to scholar and practitioner theories about the role of environmental policy instrument in reducing negative externality in the field of urban transportation.
The goal of this project is to determine how parks and other conservation policies might affect local welfare. We are interested in wages, employment of agricultural and non-agricultural activities, infrastructure and poverty rates.
Combining state of the art science with practitioner´s wisdom in the design of PES schemes: Lessons from the Costa Rican experience
Our goal is to learn about the Costa Rican experience from the inside, working closely with FONAFIFO staff to understand how they have sought to improve efficiency and to explore options for setting payment levels and targeting to increase efficiency, without missing the myriad of norms, rules, and other obstacles that program managers might face in the implementation of, for example, procurement auctions.
Economic and Environmental Impacts of Bioenergy in China: Implications for Land Use, Food Prices, and Policies
In this project we will investigate the effects of large-scale bioenergy production on land use, crop production, farm income, and for the environment over a 20-year horizon in China.
This project aims at (1) Documenting the main urban transportation challenges in China, public policies in this field, and evaluating the effectiveness of these policies; (2) Improving the assessment of transportation externality costs in China (with a focus on Beijing) based on a large scale urban household survey and a proper estimation methodology; (3) Developing an analytical and empirical framework which links private automobile ownership and behavioural transportation modal choice to enhance the understanding of individual’s travel demand choice, automobile purchase and use decisions; (4) Building capacities in China based on quantative and qualitative assessments of decision-making process in transportation policies to reach a better understanding of alternative policy instruments for reducing negative externalities from urban transportation.
The overall objective of the study is to provide the value of time estimates for automobile users on a congested road using a stated preference survey. The purpose of this study is to obtain the public preferences for time savings on a congested road, which we believe could provide important policy inputs for ongoing congestion pricing discussions in Beijing.
In this project we set out to find data that policymakers need to decide whether to retain and replicate and refine their driving restriction programs: reliable estimates of the costs these programs impose on households and the incidence of these costs across socioeconomic strata.
The project addresses the impact of climate change on the value of wildlife and welfare of ranchers. We use a panel Ricardian model to address specification challenges of single year cross sectional survey and unstable results due to repeated cross sectional surveys.
What Drives the (Non) Adoption of Agricultural Technologies? Time Preferences and Social Networks in Rural Tanzania
The adoption of new agricultural technologies is instrumental in the process of adaptation to climate change. Yet, in eastern Africa the adoption rate have been very small. Besides institutional explanations, the recent literature has pointed out at the role of impatience we explore the relative importance of this explanation vis-à-vis an alternative explanation based on sharing pressure within social networks. A combination of lab and field experiments will be used to address theses questions.
Combining state of the art science with practitioners wisdom in the design of PES schemes: Lessons from the Costa Rican experience.
The Costa Rican PSA Program is widely cited in discussions about REDD+, including as a reference on the costs of implementing PES and the challenges of generating additionality and livelihood co-benefits (poverty reduction). As such, it is critical to document and extract lessons from the variation in payment levels and targeting criteria employed by Costa Rica´s National Forestry Fund (F
Adaptation to Increase Resilience to Climate Change in Ethiopian Agriculture: Empowering Farmers to Adopt the Right Water Management Technologies for their Farms
Climate change in Ethiopia will not only increase rainfall variability and lead to more frequent droughts and higher risk of rain generated floods, it will also continue to intensify the degradation of soil fertility that causes agricultural productivity to decline. Adaptation measures that build upon improved water management and enhance soil fertility are fundamental in boosting overall resilience to climate change in the Blue Nile Basin.