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Agriculture

2014-02-21

Women's Participation in Ensuring Food Security at Household Level: Evidence from Ebinat District, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

Several activities are being undertaken to improve the livelihood of poor households by governments and NGOs in developing countries including Ethiopia. As women constitute about half of the total population in Ethiopia, it is important to see their role in improving household’s food security. This study provides an assessment of the role of women’s participation in ensuring food security at household level in Ebinat district, Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

2013-12-23

The Economic Valuation of Dryland Ecosystem Services in the South African Kgalagadi Area and Implications for PES Involving the Khomani San

The economic importance of the dryland ecosystem services in the Kgalagadi area is generally unknown, as is the distribution of benefits from use of the ecosystem services. This study seeks to value ecosystem services in the Kgalagadi area by applying the choice experiment technique and then assessing the potential for ecosystem services to contribute to the Khomani San livelihoods through a payment for ecosystem services (PES) scheme.

2013-11-06

A Non-Parametric Data Envelopment Analysis Approach for Improving Energy Efficiency of Grape Production

Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops with approximately 67.5 million tonnes produced each year and energy is an important element in modern grape productions as it heavily depends on fossil and other energy resources. Efficient use of these energies is a necessary step toward reducing environmental hazards, preventing destruction of natural resources and ensuring agricultural sustainability. Hence, identifying excessive use of energy as well as reducing energy resources is the main focus of this paper to optimize energy consumption in grape production.

2013-11-06

Estimating the potential economic benefits of adopting Bt cotton in selected COMESA countries

Cotton farmers in the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) face pest challenges, the most destructive of which is the African bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). Reduction in these pest infestations can increase yields and improve welfare of cotton producers, consumers, and innovators. Currently, the control of bollworms in this region is done through application pesticides, which is a costly exercise in terms of cost of pesticides, spray equipment, and labor.

2013-10-04

Fossil Fuel and Food Tax Incidence in Ethiopia

Most studies suggest that environmental taxes are regressive, making them less attractive policy options. The general objective of this paper is to analyze and compare fossil fuel and food tax incidence in Ethiopia in different expenditure groups of households considering urban and rural parts of Ethiopia separately.

2013-09-30

Adoption of Multiple Sustainable Agricultural Practices in Rural Ethiopia

The adoption and diffusion of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) has become an important issue in the development-policy agenda for sub-Saharan Africa, especially as a way to tackle land degradation, low agricultural productivity and poverty. However, the adoption rates of SAPs remain below expected levels.

2013-09-21

Cropping system diversification, conservation tillage and modern seed adoption in Ethiopia: Impacts on household income, agrochemical use and demand for labor

The type and combination of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) adopted have a significant effect on agricultural productivity and food security. This study develops a multinomial endogenous switching regression model of farmers' choice of combination of SAPs and impacts on maize income and agrochemicals and family labor use in rural Ethiopia.

2013-09-15

    Curbing coca cultivation in Colombia — A framed field experiment

    This paper investigates the efficiency of carrot and stick policies to reduce investment in coca cultivation in rural Colombia. To measure behavioral responses to anti-drug policies, we conducted a framed field experiment with farmers living in one of the most important coca growing areas. Our experimental design allows identifying heterogeneous producer types and measuring their behavioral response to carrots and sticks. We provide an example on how knowledge on distribution types can be used to design an optimal anti-drug policy.

    2013-06-01

    Forest land rights, tenure types, and farmers' investment incentives in China: An empirical study of Fujian Province

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of land rights and tenure types on farmers' investment behavior in Chinese collective forests, using household survey data from Fujian Province. Design/methodology/approach – In this study, the authors conducted a household survey in Fujian province of 520 randomly selected forest farmers. The authors used a random-effects Tobit model to estimate the impact of land rights and other components on, for example, tenure security and harvest quota, and the impact of tenure types on farmers' investment incentives.

    2013-05-31

    Dynamics of indirect land-use change: Empirical evidence from Brazil

    The expansion of a given land use may affect deforestation directly if forests are cleared to free land for this use, or indirectly, via the displacement of other land-use activities from non-forest areas towards the forest frontier. Unlike direct land conversion, indirect land-use changes affecting deforestation are not immediately observable. They require the linking of changes occurring in different regions.

    2013-03-05

    Integrating soil science into agricultural production frontiers

    This paper integrates soil science variables into an economic analysis of agricultural output among small-scale farmers in Kenya's highlands. The integration is valuable because farmers’ choice of inputs depends on both the status of the soil and socioeconomic conditions. The study uses a stochastic production frontier in which the individual farm's distance to the frontier depends systematically on individual factors.

    2013-01-19

    The Distributive Effect and Food Security Implications of Biofuels Investment in Ethiopia: A CGE Analysis

    In response to global opportunities and domestic challenges, Ethiopia is revising its energy policy to switch from high-cost imported fossil fuel to domestically produced biofuels. Currently, there are biofuel investment activities in different parts of the country to produce ethanol and biodiesel. However, there is no rigorous empirical study to assess impacts of such investments.

    2013-01-19

    Thanks but No Thanks: A New Policy to Avoid Land Conflict

    Land conflicts can be detrimental. An important goal of development policy is to help define and instill respect for borders. This is often implemented through mandatory and expensive interventions that rely on the expansion of government land administration institutions.

    2012-12-30

    The Supply of Inorganic Fertilizers to Smallholder Farmers in Tanzania, Evidence for Fertilizer Policy Development

    Inorganic fertilizer is one of a handful of agricultural technologies that have immense potential for raising the productivity of poor smallholders, enabling them to increase income, accumulate assets, and set themselves economically on a pathway out of poverty. This paper presents the results of a broad study of fertilizer supply to smallholder farmers in Tanzania that was done to assess whether the taxes (explicit or implicit) that are applied at various points along the fertilizer importation and marketing chain or the absence of key public goods and services reduces the access that smallholder farmers have to fertilizer. The study involved a review of the literature of fertilizer supply, demand, and use; interviews with key participants in fertilizer importation and marketing in Tanzania; and two surveys—one with farmers and the other with input suppliers—in three farming areas where more fertilizer is used than is the norm for the country as a whole

    2012-11-23

      Biodiversity, poverty, and development

      Biodiversity is crucial for the production of a range of marketed and non-marketed ecosystem goods and services. This paper reviews the empirical evidence for the role of terrestrial biodiversity and biodiversity conservation in economic development and poverty, at both the macro (e.g. country) and micro (e.g. farm) scales.

      2012-11-09

      Does eco-certification have environmental benefits? Organic coffee in Costa Rica

      Eco-certification of coffee, timber and other high-value agricultural commodities is increasingly widespread. In principle, it can improve commodity producers' environmental performance, even in countries where state regulation is weak. But eco-certification will have limited environmental benefits if, as one would expect, it disproportionately selects for producers already meeting certification standards.

      2012-08-09

      The impact of shadow prices and farmers' impatience on the allocation of a multipurpose renewable resource in Ethiopia

      In a mixed farming system in which farmyard manure (FYM) is considered an important multipurpose renewable resource that can be used to enhance soil organic matter, provide additional income and supply household energy, soil fertility depletion could take place within the perspective of the household allocation pattern of FYM. This paper estimates a system of FYM allocation regressions to examine the role of returns to FYM and farmers’ impatience on the propensity to allocate FYM to different uses.

      2012-08-07

      Nudging Boserup? The Impact of Fertilizer Subsidies on Investment in Soil and Water Conservation

      The new fertilizer subsidies in sub-Saharan Africa are intended to increase agricultural production and ensure development of a fertilizer market. Fertilizer adoption requires complementary inputs, such as investment in soil and water conservation (SWC), for efficient and optimal nutrient uptake, and many fertilizer subsidy programs implicitly assume that fertilizer subsidies crowd in such investments.

      2012-04-03

      Kenya State of Environment Report 2010

      EfD-Kenya actively participated in the preparation of the Kenya State of Environment (SoE) Report 2010. EfD-K Researchers Dr. Wilfred Nyangena and Geophrey Sikei were authors in the report. Dr. Nyangena was the Lead Author for Chapter 11 of the report which dealt with Policy options for action. Geophrey was a contributing author in Chapter 11 and Chapter 6 dealing with Land, Agriculture and Livestock.

      2012-02-20

      Formal microlending and adverse (or non-existent) selection: A case study of shrimp farmers in Bangladesh

      Microcredit schemes have become a popular means of improving smallholders’ access to credit and making long term investment possible. However, it remains to be explored whether the current microcredit schemes are more successful than earlier formal small scale lending in identifying successful borrowers. We studied shrimp farming in a rural region in Bangladesh where formal microlending is well established, but where more expensive informal microlending coexists with the formal schemes.

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