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Agriculture

2015-01-31

Does Institutional Isolation Matter for Soil Conservation Decisions? Evidence From Kenya

This article investigates the role of institutional isolation on the adoption of soil conservation technologies in Kenya. The study is based on the theory of induced technical and institutional innovations and on the literature on land tenure security and investment incentives. A multinomial logit model for adoption of various soil conservation investments (SCI) is estimated.

2015-01-05

Land Acquisitions in Tanzania: Strong Sustainability, Weak Sustainability and the Importance of Comparative Methods

This paper distinguished different analytical approaches to the evaluation of the sustainability of large-scale land acquisitions—at both the conceptual and methodological levels. First, at the conceptual level, evaluation of the sustainability of land acquisitions depends on what definition of sustainability is adopted—strong or weak sustainability. Second, a lack of comparative empirical methods in many studies has limited the identification of causal factors affecting sustainability.

2014-08-30

Demand for second-stage land certification in Ethiopia: Evidence from household panel data

Ethiopia has implemented one of the largest, fastest and least expensive land registration and certification reforms in Africa. While there is evidence that this ‘first-stage’ land registration has had positive effects in terms of increased investment, land productivity and land rental market activities, the government is now piloting another round of land registration and certification that involves technically advanced land survey methods and computer registration.

2014-08-30

Are Rural Youth in Ethiopia Abandoning Agriculture?

This study examines current land access and livelihood choices of rural youth in Southern Ethiopia. We found that youth in rural south have limited access to agricultural land because of land scarcity and land market restrictions.

2014-08-24

Farmers’ Perceptions About The Influence Of Land Quality, Land Fragmentation And Tenure Systems On Sustainable Land Management In The North Western Ethiopian Highlands

Land is a scarce resource in the highlands of Ethiopia. Its sustainable use is highly affected by bio-physical and institutional factors. The purpose of this research is to investigate farmers' perceptions about land quality, land fragmentation and tenure systems and their influences on sustainable land management (SLM) investments in the North Western Ethiopian Highlands.

2014-06-21

Crop Insurance as a Strategy for Adapting to Climate Change

Financial insurance for extreme events can play an important role in hedging against the implications of climate change. This paper combines a comprehensive estimation strategy and a unique panel dataset to study the role of financial insurance in farmers' welfare under uncertainty.

2014-06-04

The Economic Impact of Weather Variability on China’s Rice Sector

This paper provides the first county-level analysis of the impacts of weather variability on rice yield in China, by compiling a unique panel on irrigated single-season rice and daily weather data. We found that temperature and solar radiation had statistically significant impacts on rice yield during the vegetative and ripening stages, while the effects of rainfall on yield were not significant.

2014-06-01

Strategic alliances in Kenyan smallholder farming

Implementing and complying with standards and certification often increases costs for supply chain actors. These increased costs are caused by upgrading production, logistics and marketing needed to achieve compliance, and can lead to the exclusion of actors from the supply chain.

2014-02-21

Women's Participation in Ensuring Food Security at Household Level: Evidence from Ebinat District, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

Several activities are being undertaken to improve the livelihood of poor households by governments and NGOs in developing countries including Ethiopia. As women constitute about half of the total population in Ethiopia, it is important to see their role in improving household’s food security. This study provides an assessment of the role of women’s participation in ensuring food security at household level in Ebinat district, Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

2013-12-23

The Economic Valuation of Dryland Ecosystem Services in the South African Kgalagadi Area and Implications for PES Involving the Khomani San

The economic importance of the dryland ecosystem services in the Kgalagadi area is generally unknown, as is the distribution of benefits from use of the ecosystem services. This study seeks to value ecosystem services in the Kgalagadi area by applying the choice experiment technique and then assessing the potential for ecosystem services to contribute to the Khomani San livelihoods through a payment for ecosystem services (PES) scheme.

2013-11-06

A Non-Parametric Data Envelopment Analysis Approach for Improving Energy Efficiency of Grape Production

Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops with approximately 67.5 million tonnes produced each year and energy is an important element in modern grape productions as it heavily depends on fossil and other energy resources. Efficient use of these energies is a necessary step toward reducing environmental hazards, preventing destruction of natural resources and ensuring agricultural sustainability. Hence, identifying excessive use of energy as well as reducing energy resources is the main focus of this paper to optimize energy consumption in grape production.

2013-11-06

Estimating the potential economic benefits of adopting Bt cotton in selected COMESA countries

Cotton farmers in the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) face pest challenges, the most destructive of which is the African bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). Reduction in these pest infestations can increase yields and improve welfare of cotton producers, consumers, and innovators. Currently, the control of bollworms in this region is done through application pesticides, which is a costly exercise in terms of cost of pesticides, spray equipment, and labor.

2013-10-04

Fossil Fuel and Food Tax Incidence in Ethiopia

Most studies suggest that environmental taxes are regressive, making them less attractive policy options. The general objective of this paper is to analyze and compare fossil fuel and food tax incidence in Ethiopia in different expenditure groups of households considering urban and rural parts of Ethiopia separately.

2013-09-30

Adoption of Multiple Sustainable Agricultural Practices in Rural Ethiopia

The adoption and diffusion of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) has become an important issue in the development-policy agenda for sub-Saharan Africa, especially as a way to tackle land degradation, low agricultural productivity and poverty. However, the adoption rates of SAPs remain below expected levels.

2013-09-21

Cropping system diversification, conservation tillage and modern seed adoption in Ethiopia: Impacts on household income, agrochemical use and demand for labor

The type and combination of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) adopted have a significant effect on agricultural productivity and food security. This study develops a multinomial endogenous switching regression model of farmers' choice of combination of SAPs and impacts on maize income and agrochemicals and family labor use in rural Ethiopia.

2013-09-15

    Curbing coca cultivation in Colombia — A framed field experiment

    This paper investigates the efficiency of carrot and stick policies to reduce investment in coca cultivation in rural Colombia. To measure behavioral responses to anti-drug policies, we conducted a framed field experiment with farmers living in one of the most important coca growing areas. Our experimental design allows identifying heterogeneous producer types and measuring their behavioral response to carrots and sticks. We provide an example on how knowledge on distribution types can be used to design an optimal anti-drug policy.

    2013-06-01

    Forest land rights, tenure types, and farmers' investment incentives in China: An empirical study of Fujian Province

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of land rights and tenure types on farmers' investment behavior in Chinese collective forests, using household survey data from Fujian Province. Design/methodology/approach – In this study, the authors conducted a household survey in Fujian province of 520 randomly selected forest farmers. The authors used a random-effects Tobit model to estimate the impact of land rights and other components on, for example, tenure security and harvest quota, and the impact of tenure types on farmers' investment incentives.

    2013-05-31

    Dynamics of indirect land-use change: Empirical evidence from Brazil

    The expansion of a given land use may affect deforestation directly if forests are cleared to free land for this use, or indirectly, via the displacement of other land-use activities from non-forest areas towards the forest frontier. Unlike direct land conversion, indirect land-use changes affecting deforestation are not immediately observable. They require the linking of changes occurring in different regions.

    2013-03-05

    Integrating soil science into agricultural production frontiers

    This paper integrates soil science variables into an economic analysis of agricultural output among small-scale farmers in Kenya's highlands. The integration is valuable because farmers’ choice of inputs depends on both the status of the soil and socioeconomic conditions. The study uses a stochastic production frontier in which the individual farm's distance to the frontier depends systematically on individual factors.

    2013-01-19

    The Distributive Effect and Food Security Implications of Biofuels Investment in Ethiopia: A CGE Analysis

    In response to global opportunities and domestic challenges, Ethiopia is revising its energy policy to switch from high-cost imported fossil fuel to domestically produced biofuels. Currently, there are biofuel investment activities in different parts of the country to produce ethanol and biodiesel. However, there is no rigorous empirical study to assess impacts of such investments.

    2013-01-19

    Thanks but No Thanks: A New Policy to Avoid Land Conflict

    Land conflicts can be detrimental. An important goal of development policy is to help define and instill respect for borders. This is often implemented through mandatory and expensive interventions that rely on the expansion of government land administration institutions.

    2012-12-30

    The Supply of Inorganic Fertilizers to Smallholder Farmers in Tanzania, Evidence for Fertilizer Policy Development

    Inorganic fertilizer is one of a handful of agricultural technologies that have immense potential for raising the productivity of poor smallholders, enabling them to increase income, accumulate assets, and set themselves economically on a pathway out of poverty. This paper presents the results of a broad study of fertilizer supply to smallholder farmers in Tanzania that was done to assess whether the taxes (explicit or implicit) that are applied at various points along the fertilizer importation and marketing chain or the absence of key public goods and services reduces the access that smallholder farmers have to fertilizer. The study involved a review of the literature of fertilizer supply, demand, and use; interviews with key participants in fertilizer importation and marketing in Tanzania; and two surveys—one with farmers and the other with input suppliers—in three farming areas where more fertilizer is used than is the norm for the country as a whole

    2012-11-23

      Biodiversity, poverty, and development

      Biodiversity is crucial for the production of a range of marketed and non-marketed ecosystem goods and services. This paper reviews the empirical evidence for the role of terrestrial biodiversity and biodiversity conservation in economic development and poverty, at both the macro (e.g. country) and micro (e.g. farm) scales.

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