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Agriculture

2018-04-19

Climate-Smart Agricultural Practices and Welfare of Rural Smallholders in Ethiopia: Does Planting Method Matter?

The purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence on the impact of a climate-smart agricultural practice (row planting) on the welfare of rural households. Data collected from 260 households in the North Wollo Zone of Ethiopia were analyzed using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) and a semi-parametric Local Instrumental Variable (LIV) version of the generalized Roy model. The results from the PSM revealed that adoption of row planting technology has a positive and significant impact on per capita consumption and on crop income per hectare.

2018-04-19

Do safety net transfers improve household diets and reduce undernutrition? Evidence from rural Ethiopia

This paper examines the impact of the Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Program on household dietary diversity and child nutrition using both waves of the Ethiopian Socioeconomic Survey. The study uses various methodologies, to estimate the effect of the program on household dietary diversity, it relys on the exogeneity of the change in the amount of money that kebeles (lowest administrative unit) have available to allocate among program beneficiaries, which depends on donor support. It presents evidence that there is a discrete jump in the kebeles’ allocated budget between 2012 and 2014.

2018-04-18

Cómo enfrentar el cambio climático desde la agricultura: Prácticas de Adaptación basadas en Ecosistemas (AbE). Materiales de fortalecimiento de capacidades técnicas del proyecto CASCADA

Este manual forma parte de los materiales de fortalecimiento de capacidades técnicas en materia de adaptación de la agricultura al cambio climático del Proyecto CASCADA. Los materiales, que constan de 4 módulos de capacitación, tienen como objetivo diseminar información práctica de la aplicación del concepto de Adaptación basada en Ecosistemas para extensionistas.

2018-04-18

La importancia de los servicios ecosistémicos para la agricultura. Materiales de fortalecimiento de capacidades técnicas del proyecto CASCADA

Este manual forma parte de los materiales de fortalecimiento de capacidades técnicas en materia de adaptación de la agricultura al cambio climático del Proyecto CASCADA. Los materiales, que constan de 4 módulos de capacitación, tienen como objetivo diseminar información práctica de la aplicación del concepto de Adaptación basada en Ecosistemas para extensionistas.

2018-04-18

Impactos del cambio climático en la agricultura de Centroamérica, estrategias de mitigación y adaptación. Materiales de fortalecimiento de capacidades técnicas del proyecto CASCADA

Este manual forma parte de los materiales de fortalecimiento de capacidades técnicas en materia de adaptación de la agricultura al cambio climático del Proyecto CASCADA. Los materiales, que constan de 4 módulos de capacitación, tienen como objetivo diseminar información práctica de la aplicación del concepto de Adaptación basada en Ecosistemas para extensionistas.

2018-04-18

El clima, el cambio climático, la vulnerabilidad y acciones contra el cambio climático: Conceptos básicos. Materiales de fortalecimiento de capacidades técnicas del proyecto CASCADA

Este manual forma parte de los materiales de fortalecimiento de capacidades técnicas en materia de adaptación de la agricultura al cambio climático del Proyecto CASCADA. Los materiales, que constan de 4 módulos de capacitación, tienen como objetivo diseminar información práctica de la aplicación del concepto de Adaptación basada en Ecosistemas para extensionistas.

2018-04-18

Programa Agroambiental Mesoamericano (MAP-Noruega) 2013-2017: Principales resultados y lecciones aprendidas

El Programa Agroambiental Mesoamericano (MAP, por sus siglas en inglés) constituyó una plataforma de investigación, educación y desarrollo a la que se vincularon múltiples actores, incluyendo: familias productoras, organizaciones de productores y de la sociedad civil, plataformas de la gobernanza territorial, gobiernos locales y nacionales, y centros de investigación y educación, con el fin de apoyar el desarrollo rural sostenible en dos territorios de la región Mesoamericana.

2018-04-18

Promoviendo prácticas Agrícolas Climáticamente Inteligentes para enfrentar los efectos del cambio y la variabilidad climática en Trifinio

Este documento resume los principales hallazgos de un estudio orientado a determinar cuán Climáticamente Inteligentes son las prácticas agropecuarias que el CATIE (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza), a través del Programa Agroambiental Mesoamericano (MAP, por sus siglas en inglés), y otras organizaciones gubernamentales y no gubernamentales han promovido y que miles de familias han adoptado en los territorios de Trifinio (zona fronteriza entre El Salvador, Honduras y Guatemala) y NicaCentral (centronorte de Nicaragua).

2018-04-18

Promoviendo prácticas Agrícolas Climáticamente Inteligentes para enfrentar los efectos del cambio y la variabilidad climática en el centro-norte de Nicaragua (NicaCentral)

Este documento resume los principales hallazgos de un estudio orientado a determinar cuán climáticamente inteligentes son las prácticas agropecuarias, que el CATIE (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza), a través del Programa Agroambiental Mesoamericano (MAP, por sus siglas en inglés), y otras organizaciones gubernamentales y no gubernamentales han promovido y que miles de familias han adoptado en los territorios de NicaCentral (centro-norte de Nicaragua) y Trifinio (zona transfronteriza entre El Salvador, Honduras y Guatemala).

2018-04-18

First experiences with a novel farmer citizen science approach: crowdsourcing participatory variety selection through on-farm triadic comparisons of technologies (tricot)

Rapid climatic and socio-economic changes challenge current agricultural R&D capacity. The necessary quantum leap in knowledge generation should build on the innovation capacity of farmers themselves. A novel citizen science methodology, triadic comparisons of technologies or tricot, was implemented in pilot studies in India, East Africa, and Central America. The methodology involves distributing a pool of agricultural technologies in different combinations of three to individual farmers who observe these technologies under farm conditions and compare their performance.

2018-04-18

Carbon stocks, net cash flow and family benefits from four small coffee plantation types in Nicaragua

This study sought to identify agroforestry systems with coffee that simultaneously generate financial profits, provide goods for family consumption, and store significant amounts of carbon in aboveground biomass. We studied 27 coffee plantations in Nicaragua, grouped in four typologies defined a priori: C1, full-sun coffee; C2, coffee, bananas and service trees; C3, coffee, bananas, service and timber trees; C4, coffee, bananas, service, timber and fruit trees.

2018-04-17

Land for food or power? Risk governance of dams and family farms in Southwest Ethiopia

This study use the concepts of riskscapes and risk governance to analyze the tensions between land use for food (farms) and energy (dams) in South West Ethiopia. It analyzes the linkage between risk perception, risk assessment and risk management for local and non-local actors. The study distinguish, after empirical analysis, as main riskscapes the riskscapes of landlessness, food and energy insecurity and siltation.

2018-04-17

Climate change adaptation: a study of multiple climate-smart practices in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia

Improving farm-level use of multiple climate change adaptation strategies is essential for improving household food security, particularly against a backdrop of a high risk of climatic shocks. However, the empirical foundation for understanding how farm households choose multiple climate-smart practices is far from being established. In this paper, the effects of household, farm and climatic factors on farmers’ decisions to use multiple adaptation practices are analysed.

2018-04-14

Conservation Payments, Off-Farm Labor, and Ethnic Minorities: Participation and Impact of the Grain for Green Program in China

The Grain for Green program in China, a nationwide cropland set-aside program aimed at soil erosion prevention and poverty alleviation, was begun in 1999 and quickly expanded to 25 provinces, covering 32 million households. Its effects on participating households are well studied, but the role of ethnic characteristics is less well investigated. Given the overlap of areas covered by Grain for Green and areas inhabited by ethnic minorities, where development is a long-unresolved problem, it is important to determine how ethnic minorities react to, and benefit from, the Grain for Green program. This study investigates participation in the program by ethnic minorities and

2018-04-05

Naturally Available Pollinator Decline Will Decrease Household Food Security and Increase the Gender Gap in Nutrition between Men and Women Who Head Smallholder Farm Households in Sub-Saharan Africa

This multi-country analysis studies the food security implications of natural pollinator populations in sub-Saharan Africa, where smallholder farmers rely on wild pollinators in the absence of commercial pollination services. The study specifies daily intake of energy, macro-nutrients, minerals and vitamins per household member, and identify differences in pollinator dependence in male- and female-headed households. Four key observations emerge. First, smallholder farm households produce a menu of food crops.

2018-02-08

Does Intensive Tillage Enhance Productivity and Reduce Risk Exposure? Panel Data Evidence from Smallholders’ Agriculture in Ethiopia

This study analyses the impact of intensity of tillage on wheat productivity and risk exposure using panel household-plot level data from Ethiopia. In order to control for selection bias, it estimates a flexible moment-based production function using an endogenous switching regression treatment effects model. The result shows that tillage has a complementary impact on productivity and risk exposure.

2017-10-16

The use of Ecosystem-based Adaptation practices by smallholder farmers in Central America

There is growing interest in promoting the use of Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) practices to help smallholder farmers adapt to climate change, however there is limited information on how commonly these practices are used by smallholder farmers and what factors influence their use. Using participatory mapping and field surveys, we examined the prevalence and characteristics of EbA practices on 300 smallholder coffee and maize farmers in six landscapes in Central America and explored the socioeconomic and biophysical factors associated with their use.

2017-08-25

Determinants of Adoption and Impacts of Sustainable Land Management and Climate Smart Agricultural Practices (SLM-CSA)

This paper analyzes the factors affecting adoption of sustainable land management and climate smart agricultural (SLM-CSA) practices (in particular tree planting, soil conservation and inter cropping)and the effects of adoption on crop net revenue. We use two rounds of household and parcel level survey data collected from the East Gojjam and South Wollo Zones in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, in combination with spatially explicit climate data (rainfall and temperature).

2017-08-23

Determinants of Adoption and Impacts of Sustainable Land Management and Climate Smart Agricultural Practices (SLM-CSA): Panel Data Evidence from the Ethiopian Highlands

This paper analyzes the factors affecting adoption of sustainable land management and climate smart agricultural (SLM-CSA) practices (in particular tree planting, soil conservation and intercropping) and the effects of adoption on crop net revenue. We use two rounds of household and parcel level survey data collected from the East Gojjam and South Wollo Zones in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, in combination with spatially explicit climate data (rainfall and temperature).

2017-08-23

Interaction between Crop Insurance and Technology Adoption Decisions:The Case of Wheat Farmers in Chile

This paper examines relationships between crop insurance participation and input technology decisions among Chilean wheat farmers. Using nation-wide farm-level data from the National Agriculture and Forestry Census (INE 2007) a bivariate probit model is estimated. In this regard, we investigate the extent to which the adoption of certain production input technologies is associated with the participation of farmers in the state-promoted agriculture climate risk insurance program.

2017-08-04

The tilling of land in a changing climate: Empirical evidence from the Nile Basin of Ethiopia

Using household-plot level panel data from the Nile Basin of Ethiopia, this article applies a random effects ordered probit endogenous switching regression model to empirically investigate the impact of weather events and other conditioning factors on farmers’ choice of tillage intensity and the effect of changing tillage frequencies on differences in farm returns. Results indicate that, while low frequency tillage is more likely in drier areas, plot-level shocks (such as pests and diseases) are key variables in the choice of high-frequency tillage.

2017-08-04

Do safety net transfers improve household diets and reduce under nutrition? Evidence from rural Ethiopia

The paper examines the impact of the Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Program on household dietary diversity and child nutrition using both waves of the Ethiopian Socio-economic Survey. Key messages • The Productive Safety Net Program is not found to have any impact on dietary diversity or child nutrition, however, it does help reduce household food insecurity. • A nutrition-sensitive social protection program should be implemented. • To improve child nutrition, social benefits can be made conditional on parents’ participation in nutrition education programs.

2017-08-03

High Daytime and Nighttime Temperatures Exert Large and Opposing Impacts on Winter Wheat Yield in China

We analyzed a provincial-scale data set of observed winter wheat yield, together with fine-scale daily weather outcomes from 1979 to 2011, to assess the responses of winter wheat yield in China to changes in the daytime temperature (Tmax) and the nighttime temperature (Tmin). Contrasting with the literature’s emphasis on a negative correlation between Tmin and wheat yield, we showed that winter wheat yield in China responded positively to higher Tmin, with the positive yield responses varying across wheat growing seasons.

2017-06-11

Impacts of climate change on agriculture: Evidence from China

To move China's climate policy forward, improved analyses of climate impacts on economic sectors using rigorous methodology and high quality data are called for. We develop an empirical framework, using fine-scale meteorological data, to estimate the link between corn and soy bean yields and weather in China.

2017-05-12

Storm Damage and Risk Preferences: Panel Evidence from Germany

Individuals’ risk preferences may change after experiencing external socio-economic or natural shocks. Theoretical predictions and empirical studies suggest that risk taking may increase or decrease after experiencing shocks. So far the empirical evidence is sparse, especially when it comes to developed countries. We contribute to this literature by investigating whether experiencing financial and health-related damage caused by storms affects risk preferences of individuals in Germany.

2017-03-30

Livestock predation in South Africa: The need for and value of a scientific assessment

Predation of livestock in South Africa has been estimated to cost in excess of ZAR1 billion in losses per year and has complex social, economic and ecological drivers and consequences. In this context, livestock can be broadly defined as domesticated animals and wildlife (the former excluding poultry and the latter including ostrich, Struthio camelus) managed for commercial purposes or human benefit in free-ranging (or semi-free ranging) circumstances that render them vulnerable to predation. This conflict between livestock

2017-03-24

Governing agricultural drought: Monitoring using the vegetation condition index

This paper investigates the spatial and temporal aspect of seasonal agricultural drought in Ethiopia during the cropping season using Vegetation Condition Index. SPOT-VGT S10 NDVI time-series for the period 1998 to 2013 was employed. Five hundred and sixty-seven dekadal images were administered in order to produce the multi-temporal agricultural drought maps. Accordingly, the analysis showed different causes for the nation-wide drought events occurred in the years 1998, 2000, 2002, 2009, and 2010.

2017-03-24

Estimating the impact of a food security program by propensity-score matching

Reducing poverty and improving household food security remains an important policy objective for rural development in the semi-arid areas of many countries in Africa. Many development programs have been introduced in efforts to bring the cycle of poverty and food insecurity to an end. This paper investigates the impact of a food security package (FSP) program in improving rural household’s food consumption in Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia.

2017-03-24

The Effect of Enclosures in Rehabilitating Degraded Vegetation: A Case of Enderta District, Northern Ethiopia

Ethiopia is one of the African countries facing problems of environmental degradation. In particular, the problem is severe in the Tigray region of Northern Ethiopia highlands where, environmental degradation is threatening many parts of the region. Efforts to contain this problem and facilitate natural rehabilitation have been made at several levels. The establishment of area enclosures, and soil and water conservation works are two of the main strategies promoted to contain land degradation and restore the natural vegetation.

2017-03-24

Coping with Food Insecurity on a Micro-Scale: Evidence from Ethiopian Rural Households

This article examines the main household demographics and economic factors associated with food insecurity and coping behavior of rural households employed during times of food shortages in northern Ethiopia. Using a cost-of-basic-needs approach we estimated the food poverty line. This cut-off value was used to classify households as either food secure or insecure.

2017-03-24

Farm Level Adaptation to Climate Change: The Case of Farmer’s in the Ethiopian Highlands

 In Ethiopia, climate change and associated risks are expected to have serious consequences for agriculture and food security. This in turn will seriously impact on the welfare of the people, particularly the rural farmers whose main livelihood depends on rain-fed agriculture. The level of impacts will mainly depend on the awareness and the level of adaptation in response to the changing climate.

2017-03-24

Spatial and temporal assessment of drought in the Northern highlands of Ethiopia

With the development of global changes, researchers from all over the world increasingly pay attention to drought detection, and severe droughts that may have resulted from climate change. In this paper, spatial and temporal variability of drought is evaluated based on precipitation data and remotely sensed images. The standard precipitation index (SPI) and vegetation condition index (VCI) are used to evaluate the spatial and temporal characteristics of meteorological and vegetative drought in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.

2017-03-24

Effect of Policy Interventions on Food Security in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

This study attempts to investigate the effectiveness of government policy interventions at different scales addressed to improve food security. Food security both at the regional and district level was investigated by deriving food balance sheets for the period 2000-2008. An empirical analysis based on a logit model was also employed to analyze household level food security status.

2017-03-01

Does Adoption of multiple climate-smart practices improve farmers’ climate resilience? Empirical evidence from the Nile basin of Ethiopia

There is a paucity of information on conditioning factors that hinder or promote adoption of multiple climate-smart practices and on the synergies among such practices in increasing household resilience by improving agricultural income. This study analyzes how heat, rainfall, and rainfall variability affect farmers’ choices of a portfolio of potential climate smart practices — agricultural water management, improved crop seeds, and fertilizer — and the impact of these practices on farm income in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia.

2017-03-01

The Ethiopian Commodity Exchange and spatial price dispersion

This article investigates the impact of an institutional intervention on market efficiency in Ethiopia. More specifically, it analyzes to what extent the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) in combination with regional warehouses have contributed to a reduction in price spreads between regional markets. The hypothesis is that warehouses connected to the ECX reduce the dispersion between export prices and local retail prices in different coffee growing areas, as well as the dispersion between export prices and local retail prices in different coffee growing areas.

2017-01-21

Off-farm employment and rural crime: Evidence from village panel of rural China

This paper uses a unique village-level panel dataset on rural social public security to estimate the link between off-farm employment and rural crime in China. We find that, firstly, with one percent increase in off-farm employment, rural crimes and violating the security management and punishment regulations are projected to increase by 0.28 percent and 0.62 percent, respectively; secondly, there are no significant correlation between off-farm employment and rural civil disputes.

2016-12-28

Tanzanian Food Origins and Protected Geographical Indications

As the world`s population is constantly growing, food security will remain on the policy Agenda, particularly in Africa. At the same time, global food systems experience a new wave focusing on local foods and food sovereignty featuring high quality food products of verifiable geographical origin. This article argues that Geographical Indications (GI´s) hold the potential to help transform the Tanzanian agriculture-dependent economy through the tapping of value from unique products, attributing taste and colour to place or regional geography.

2016-12-27

Impact of Smoking on Food Expenditure among Tanzanian Households

This study considers the effect of household tobacco expenditure on food consumption in Tanzania. The study hypothesizes that the majority of Tanzanians belong to a low-income group and that any expenditure on cigarettes or tobacco is at the expense of basic necessities, especially food. To verify this hypothesis, we first compared various expenditure patterns as well as household size of nonsmokers and smokers.

2016-12-27

Impact of Smoking on Nutrition and the Food Poverty Level in Tanzania

This study considers the effect of household cigarette expenditure on food poverty indicators in Tanzania. We first compare expenditure patterns as well as the household size of non-smokers and smokers. We find that the majority of non-smokers and smokers have low incomes, and that the mean total per capita expenditure (proxy for income) of non-smokers is slightly higher than those of smokers.

2016-12-27

The Demand for Cigarettes in Tanzania and Implications for Tobacco Taxation Policy

The study attempts to estimate the demand for cigarettes in Tanzania and presents simulation results on the effect of the cigarette excise tax on smoking participation, government revenue, and related topics. After briefly summarizing the magnitude and spread of cigarette consumption in the country, the paper reviews some empirical estimates from African and other countries. The 2008 Tanzanian household budget survey was used to estimate the demand for cigarettes in Tanzania.

2016-12-27

Agricultural Modernization and Productivity Enhancement

This is a chapter in the book entitled ' The Economy of Mainland Tanzania Into the 2000s: Productivity, Human Capital, and other Leading Issues'. This volume contains the main contributions to a Symposium on Development, held in 2012, that was jointly organized by the Mwalimu Julius Nyerere Professorial Chair in Development and the Department of Economics, both of the University of Dar es Salaam.

2016-12-20

Credit, insurance and farmers’ liability: Evidence from a lab-in- the-field experiment with coffee farmers in Costa Rica

Insurance is a key element for farmers’ investment decisions, but only if the government clearly communicates that it cannot provide full debt relief to all. This research examines the effect of farmers’ liability for debt on their demand for credit, with and without insurance. We test predictions of a theoretical model in a lab-in-the-field experiment with coffee farmers in Costa Rica.

2016-09-26

Mapping Vulnerability to Climate Change of the Farming Sector in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia A Micro-level Perspective

This paper analyzes vulnerability to climate change of the farming sector in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia across different agro-ecological zones. We construct composite vulnerability indices, which integrate both the bio-physical conditions of the farming regions and the socio-economic conditions of the farm households to investigate overall vulnerability as well as adaptive capacity, exposure and sensitivity.

2016-06-28

Is Eco-Certification a Win–Win for Developing Country Agriculture? Organic Coffee Certification in Colombia

Abstract: According to advocates, eco-certification is a win–win solution to the problem of environmental degradation caused by developing country agriculture, improving both the environmental and the economic performance of farmers. However, these notional benefits can be undercut by the tendency of relatively wealthy farmers already meeting eco-certification standards to disproportionately participate.

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