This research project will contribute to sustainability and poverty reduction agenda as SLM practices can enable farmers to become resilient to climate change by improving ecosystem services and functions, increasing agricultural productivity and enhancing food security. Such practices could also help mitigate climate change which is an important added advantage.
Climate change poses a serious challenge to Kenya’s socioeconomic development as the key drivers of its economy – including agriculture, forestry and fisheries among others – are affected by climate change. This study will address various issues including how climate variability has affected food security in Kenya, the vulnerability of different populations in Kenya and the key policy options for mitigating the effect of climate variability on food security and vulnerability.
Given the volatility of world oil prices and the recent all time high, which increased their popularity, bio-fuels have received a great deal of attention globally. The central questions of interest include whether this will have a positive or a negative impact on smallholder farmers and people living in rural areas, as more agricultural land will be used for biofuels production? And what is the effect of these large scale biofuels investments on growth and poverty reduction endeavors of poor countries?
Natural resources, agriculture and human activities are highly interrelated in most developing countries in general and Ethiopia in particular. Land clearing for agriculture, increase in demand for fuel wood and construction material, illegal settlement within forests, logging and the expansion of illegal trade have resulted in the deterioration of forest resources, reduction of biodiversity, incidences of soil erosion and land degradation in the country. These will increase the demand for family labor to provide essential resources such as fuel wood, fodder, and water for humans and livestock.
Renewable natural resources such as forests, fisheries, grazing lands, soils, groundwater, etc, most of which fall under the category of common pool resources, constitute a significant part of our planet. Common-pool resources (CPRs) constitute important sources of livelihoods to many people in developing countries including timber, fuelwood, grazing, irrigation water, and domestic water.
Trees in forested and agricultural landscapes are particularly important because they provide high values of environmental services and biodiversity. In this proposed study we want to establish the link between deforestation, time allocation to fuel-wood collection and agriculture. We will use a non-separable (non-recursive mode) to test the participation of households in fuel-wood collection and farming activities using data from Central and Southern Tanzania. We would like to analyze how labour time, gender composition of the household, seasonality and agro-ecological differences affect household labour allocation decisions
Empirical evidences from developing countries indicate that forest products play a significant role in rural livelihoods, particularly for the rural poor. Forests provide benefits in the form of wood, food, income, and watershed protection which enable people to secure stable and adequate food supply. However, deforestation and the resulting environmental degradation is a major problem in most African countries including Ethiopia. This is considered as one of the key factors challenging food security, community livelihood and sustainable development. Reports on the forest resources of Ethiopia are dominated by the alarming deforestation that goes on unabated and at an accelerating rate. The magnitude of deforestation and land degradation by far exceeds the conservation activities being carried out.
One of the policy measures adopted in the recent past by the government of Tanzania during the implementation of the Agricultural Sector Development Program and the Kilimo Kwanza Strategy is a subsidy to fertilizer and other agricultural inputs through the Voucher system
This project explores whether the adoption of new farming practices is decreasing in ambiguity aversion, while conversely, the uptake of insurance is increasing in ambiguity aversion. Such a result will strengthen the argument in favour of mechanisms of risk diffusion, such as insurance products for small-scale farmers.
In this research project EfD aims to examine the impact of climate change on agriculture using Ricardian approach. Moreover, the impact of climate change on the Ethiopian economy using CGE model will be analyzed.
Renewable natural resources such as forests, fisheries, grazing lands, soils, groundwater, etc, most of which fall under the category of common pool resources, constitute a significant part of our planet. Common property resources constitute important sources of livelihoods to many people in developing countries including timber, fuelwood, grazing, irrigation water, and domestic water.
Given the volatility of world oil prices and the recent all time high, which increased their popularity, bio-fuels have received a great deal of attention globally. The central question in here is whether this will have a positive or a negative impact on smallholder farmers and people living in rural areas, as more agricultural land will be used for biofuels production? While some designate it as a crime against humanity, some others have argued that a greater production of biofuels will not necessarily be harmful for the poor and that they can become more food secure with the adoption of proper production technology.
Sustained agricultural growth is important for poverty reduction in Africa due to the significant role of the sector in the continent. The performance of agriculture depends, among others, on appropriate investment in the sector and the latter is constrained by a multitude of factors including land tenure insecurity. In the presence of tenure insecurity, the risk of losing land will create a disincentive to undertake investments when the present value of the productivity benefits from such investments would, under full tenure security, be higher than their cost.
Given the volatility of world oil prices and the recent all time high, which increased their popularity, bio-fuels have received a great deal of attention globally. The central question in here is whether this will have a positive or a negative impact on smallholder farmers and people living in rural areas, as more agricultural land will be used for biofuels production?
In this research project EfD aims to draw lessons from land reforms in several Asian and African countries. The findings will be presented in a book edited by Professors Stein Holden and Keijiro Otsuka and titled "Land Reforms in Asia and Africa - Impacts on Poverty and Natural Resource Management".
Production risk is one of the quintessential features of agriculture in Ethiopia. Unpredictable weather can expose farm households to significant production uncertainty and serious hardship. Under harsh climatic and agro-ecological conditions, this can result in food insecurity and famine. During the last 40 years, Ethiopia has experienced many severe droughts leading to production levels that fell short of basic subsistence levels for many farm households (REST and NORAGRIC 1995, p. 137). Harvest failure due to drought is the most important cause of risk-related hardship of Ethiopian rural households, with adverse effects on farm household consumption and welfare (Dercon 2004, 2005). When facing prospects of harvest failure, ex ante farm production decisions, such as crop or varietal choice, remain a part of risk-management strategies (Just and Candler 1985; Fafchamps 1992; Chavas and Holt 1996; Dercon 1996; Smale et al. 1998). In dry environments, farmers’ reliance on crop biodiversity is an essential part of ex ante risk management strategies. Thus, the conservation of relevant germplasms is instrumental to hedge against weather related uncertainty.
Wetlands are considered to perform a number of ecosystem services, including the improvement of water quality. However, few empirical studies have been carried out on the capacity of wetlands to perform a water treatment function, or on the demand for this function, with the result that most estimates of the value of this service are based on a weak foundation. Furthermore, the measurement of this function is confounded by the complications in trying to assess water quality entering and leaving wetlands because of surface to groundwater interactions.
The agriculture sector in Ethiopia is characterized by low external input use and low productivity. It is also characterized by high nutrient depletion and soil erosion that limit farmers’ ability to increase agricultural production and reduce poverty and food insecurity.
Food insecurity is a common problem in Ethiopia because of natural (e.g. drought, flood) and idiosyncratic risks (e.g. illness). To reduce the welfare impact of risks, households use different risk coping strategies such as diversification of crops, different crop management practices, and informal risk sharing mechanisms.
The objective is to identify the drivers of the adoption of sustainable land management practices by coffee farmers in Costa Rica
This project is an initiative by TerrAfrica at the World Bank to provide analytical contributions to the mobilization of additional financial resources for Sustainable Land Management in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Poverty and Land Degradation in Ethiopia: How to Reverse the Spiral?
The two core objectives of the project are: 1. To examine the factors that determine woody biomass and dung consumption as fuel sources. 2. To examine the factors that determine farmers’ adoption and intensity of use of dung as fertilizer.
The main objective of this project is to identify and analyze effects of land certification on land-related investments and rural land markets.
This project aims to achieve two objectives: to identify the determinants of common property forest management (CPFM) and estimate the effects of CPFM on the planting of trees on-farm in the Ethiopian Highlands.
According to advocates, eco-certification can improve developing country farmers’ environmental and economic performance. However, these notional benefits can be undercut by self-selection: the tendency of relatively wealthy farmers already meeting eco-certification standards to disproportionately participate.
Household agricultural production for self-consumption is often highlighted by nutritionists as the main route to increasing household food security and nutritional status, especially for the poor in developing countries. At the same time, the income gains from specializing in fewer crops and selling the surplus product could be an alternate route to improved nutritional status. We use Tanzanian data to study linkages between the diversity and market orientation of a household’s agricultural production, the quality and diversity of their diets, and the nutritional status of their children.
This paper analyzed and mapped the impact of built environment (BE) on socio-ecological services along Dar es Salaam metropolitan coastline. In the period of 1995-2016, burgeoning population exacerbated high rate of construction processes and activities. Such anthropic initiatives affect the benefits and values delivered by landscape wetlands, estuaries, beach areas, open space and greenery patches in Dar es Salaam coastline.
This paper examines technical efficiency in farming activities and its implication on forest conservation in Kilosa District. The empirical analysis is based on data collected from 301 households selected randomly from five villages in Kilosa district, of which three villages were under the REDD+ project. Two empirical models were estimated: stochastic frontier Translog production function, and forest resources extraction model.
The Tanzanian component of the VALOR Project (2014-2018) studied quality factors, traits and conditions with potential to increase value of agricultural products in Tanzania through Geographical Indication (GI) protection, by recognizing territory specific (origin) products stewarded by smallholder. This policy brief summarises the key findings on policy option flowing from the research.
In India, role of women as farm managers has been veiled behind image of men as primary decision makers on farms. Data shows that approximately 8% farm households had women farm managers in India in 2004, and this number increased to 11% in 2011. This rising phenomenon of farm management by women begets an in depth understanding about these farms, including, differentials in productivity levels across men and women managers. This paper uses three measures to capture productivity – production value, profit value and crop specific yields.
This paper examines the effect of farmers’ liability on demand for credit with and without insurance. We test predictions of a theoretical model in a lab in the field experiment with coffee farmers in Costa Rica.
Open access post-harvest grazing is widespread in mixed crop-livestock systems. This discourages conservation agriculture, which depends on keeping the soil surface covered with crop residues. One way to reduce open access grazing is through restricting communal grazing access to allow rights of exclusion, while simultaneously improving the production of livestock feeds.
We analyze the impact of a new storage technology and training on post-harvest losses among small-scale maize farmers in rural Tanzania. The analysis is based on data collected by means of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which farmers were randomized into one of three groups: a control group and two treatment groups. Farmers in the first treatment group received training on post-harvest management practices, and farmers in the second treatment group were provided with hermetic (airtight) bags for storing maize, as well as the training administered to the first treatment group.
We pair a county-level panel of annual agricultural production with daily weather outcomes to measure the effects of temperature fluctuations on total agricultural output value of farming, forestry, animal husbandry and fishing in China.
The nexus between climate change, agriculture, and poverty has become a major topic of concern, especially for dry regions, which represent a large share of the world’s population and ecosystems vulnerable to climate change. In spite of this, to date, few studies have examined the impacts of climate change on agriculture and the adaptation strategies of vulnerable farmers from emerging semi-arid regions with dualist agriculture, in which subsistence farms coexist with commercial farms.
This paper examines relationships between crop insurance and input technology decisions among Chilean wheat farmers. Using nationwide farm-level data, a bivariate probit model is estimated. We investigate the extent to which the adoption of production input technologies is associated with farmers’ participation in the
The productivity of certain crops such as coffee (Coffea arabica L.), maize (Zea mays) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is expected to decline in Central America because of climate change. This will impact regional economies and livelihoods of smallholder farmers relying on these crops for their food security and livelihoods.
Climate change will affect the distribution, productivity and profitability of coffee production in Central America, negatively impacting national economies and small farmer livelihoods.
Smallholder farms in Tanzania rely on wild pollinators, but there are drastic changes in land use which result in the reduction of wild pollinators’ natural habitat, that is, forests. Our interest is to show how this affects crop revenue of smallholder farm households
The chocolate market is experiencing a wave of market differentiation thanks to the emergence of the bean‐to‐bar movement. Cacao is seeing both a rise in demand for mass markets and a process of market bifurcation into more specialized, high‐quality products for wealthy urban consumers. For the specialized market, the quality and origin of the beans are important attributes. Direct trading between chocolate makers and famers seeks to promote the conservation of rare cultivars and traditional agroforestry systems, while lifting farmers out of poverty.
Specialty coffee markets that recognize coffee‐quality price premiums can improve business conditions for smallholders and promote agro‐ecological practices. We studied the Relationship Coffee Model (RCM), a business model that supports long‐term partnerships between coffee buyers and smallholders based on product quality. We examined how biophysical conditions and production practices affect smallholders’ ability to participate in this model. Furthermore, we considered common unobservable variables driving growers’ participation such as farm soil quality and connection to social networks.
Challenges and opportunities for the sustainability transition in global trade (Introduction)
The purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence on the impact of a climate-smart agricultural practice (row planting) on the welfare of rural households. Data collected from 260 households in Gubalafto woreda of Amhara region in Ethiopia were analyzed using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) and a Semi-parametric Local Instrumental Variable (LIV) version of the generalized Roy model. The results from the PSM model revealed that adoption of row planting technology has a positive and significant impact on per capita consumption and on crop income per hectare.
This paper focuses on improved storage and preservation technologies as an adaptation strategy in response to climate change.
Using fine-scale panel data and an
El objetivo de este texto es presentar una guía práctica para la evaluación ex ante de políticas y proyectos a través del método de análisis costo beneficio (ACB), en particular para su aplicación en medidas de adaptación al cambio climático en el sector agropecuario.
This paper assesses the effect of transportation and communication networks on farmers’ choice of market channels for paddy and wheat, and subsequently on the prices they receive from these channels. It is found that smallholder farmers sell more to informal channels i.e. local traders and input dealers, and typically receive lower prices from them compared to the government-set minimum support prices (MSP). The prices realized from the sales in regulated markets are also less than the MSP despite these being claimed to be more transparent in price discovery.
En Centroamérica, el sector agrícola es indispensable para el desarrollo económico, el alivio de la pobreza y la preservación de la identidad cultural. Gran parte de la producción agrícola regional procede de pequeños productores. La agricultura de pequeña escala proporciona medios de vida a más de 2.4 millones de familias, representa cerca del 50% del PIB agrícola de los países centroamericanos, y provee aproximadamente el 70% de los alimentos consumidos en la región.
En los últimos años, Uruguay ha evidenciado las consecuencias de la contaminación difusa proveniente de la actividad agropecuaria, lo que ha sido abordado a través de programas voluntarios para promover prácticas productivas más limpias, la regulación generalizada del manejo y uso de suelo, y un plan de acción para la protección del agua en la cuenca del río Santa Lucía. Este trabajo busca identificar potenciales oportunidades de mejora de los instrumentos económicos existentes en Uruguay, que puedan promover el diálogo y acciones.