Given the volatility of world oil prices and the recent all time high, which increased their popularity, bio-fuels have received a great deal of attention globally. The central questions of interest include whether this will have a positive or a negative impact on smallholder farmers and people living in rural areas, as more agricultural land will be used for biofuels production? And what is the effect of these large scale biofuels investments on growth and poverty reduction endeavors of poor countries?
Natural resources, agriculture and human activities are highly interrelated in most developing countries in general and Ethiopia in particular. Land clearing for agriculture, increase in demand for fuel wood and construction material, illegal settlement within forests, logging and the expansion of illegal trade have resulted in the deterioration of forest resources, reduction of biodiversity, incidences of soil erosion and land degradation in the country. These will increase the demand for family labor to provide essential resources such as fuel wood, fodder, and water for humans and livestock.
Local Common Property Systems in Ethiopia: An Empirical Analysis of the Link between User Characteristics, Resource Characteristics and Institutional Regime
Renewable natural resources such as forests, fisheries, grazing lands, soils, groundwater, etc, most of which fall under the category of common pool resources, constitute a significant part of our planet. Common-pool resources (CPRs) constitute important sources of livelihoods to many people in developing countries including timber, fuelwood, grazing, irrigation water, and domestic water.
Effects of Deforestation on household Time Allocation among the Rural Agricultural Activities: Evidence from Central and Southern Tanzania
Trees in forested and agricultural landscapes are particularly important because they provide high values of environmental services and biodiversity. In this proposed study we want to establish the link between deforestation, time allocation to fuel-wood collection and agriculture. We will use a non-separable (non-recursive mode) to test the participation of households in fuel-wood collection and farming activities using data from Central and Southern Tanzania. We would like to analyze how labour time, gender composition of the household, seasonality and agro-ecological differences affect household labour allocation decisions
Empirical evidences from developing countries indicate that forest products play a significant role in rural livelihoods, particularly for the rural poor. Forests provide benefits in the form of wood, food, income, and watershed protection which enable people to secure stable and adequate food supply. However, deforestation and the resulting environmental degradation is a major problem in most African countries including Ethiopia. This is considered as one of the key factors challenging food security, community livelihood and sustainable development. Reports on the forest resources of Ethiopia are dominated by the alarming deforestation that goes on unabated and at an accelerating rate. The magnitude of deforestation and land degradation by far exceeds the conservation activities being carried out.
One of the policy measures adopted in the recent past by the government of Tanzania during the implementation of the Agricultural Sector Development Program and the Kilimo Kwanza Strategy is a subsidy to fertilizer and other agricultural inputs through the Voucher system
This project explores whether the adoption of new farming practices is decreasing in ambiguity aversion, while conversely, the uptake of insurance is increasing in ambiguity aversion. Such a result will strengthen the argument in favour of mechanisms of risk diffusion, such as insurance products for small-scale farmers.
In this research project EfD aims to examine the impact of climate change on agriculture using Ricardian approach. Moreover, the impact of climate change on the Ethiopian economy using CGE model will be analyzed.
Renewable natural resources such as forests, fisheries, grazing lands, soils, groundwater, etc, most of which fall under the category of common pool resources, constitute a significant part of our planet. Common property resources constitute important sources of livelihoods to many people in developing countries including timber, fuelwood, grazing, irrigation water, and domestic water.
Impact of Biofuel Investment on the External Sector, Growth and Poverty Reduction in Ethiopia: CGE Analysis
Given the volatility of world oil prices and the recent all time high, which increased their popularity, bio-fuels have received a great deal of attention globally. The central question in here is whether this will have a positive or a negative impact on smallholder farmers and people living in rural areas, as more agricultural land will be used for biofuels production? While some designate it as a crime against humanity, some others have argued that a greater production of biofuels will not necessarily be harmful for the poor and that they can become more food secure with the adoption of proper production technology.
Impact of land certification on tree growing on private plots of rural households: evidence from the Amhara region of Ethiopia
Sustained agricultural growth is important for poverty reduction in Africa due to the significant role of the sector in the continent. The performance of agriculture depends, among others, on appropriate investment in the sector and the latter is constrained by a multitude of factors including land tenure insecurity. In the presence of tenure insecurity, the risk of losing land will create a disincentive to undertake investments when the present value of the productivity benefits from such investments would, under full tenure security, be higher than their cost.
Given the volatility of world oil prices and the recent all time high, which increased their popularity, bio-fuels have received a great deal of attention globally. The central question in here is whether this will have a positive or a negative impact on smallholder farmers and people living in rural areas, as more agricultural land will be used for biofuels production?
In this research project EfD aims to draw lessons from land reforms in several Asian and African countries. The findings will be presented in a book edited by Professors Stein Holden and Keijiro Otsuka and titled "Land Reforms in Asia and Africa - Impacts on Poverty and Natural Resource Management".
Production risk is one of the quintessential features of agriculture in Ethiopia. Unpredictable weather can expose farm households to significant production uncertainty and serious hardship. Under harsh climatic and agro-ecological conditions, this can result in food insecurity and famine. During the last 40 years, Ethiopia has experienced many severe droughts leading to production levels that fell short of basic subsistence levels for many farm households (REST and NORAGRIC 1995, p. 137). Harvest failure due to drought is the most important cause of risk-related hardship of Ethiopian rural households, with adverse effects on farm household consumption and welfare (Dercon 2004, 2005). When facing prospects of harvest failure, ex ante farm production decisions, such as crop or varietal choice, remain a part of risk-management strategies (Just and Candler 1985; Fafchamps 1992; Chavas and Holt 1996; Dercon 1996; Smale et al. 1998). In dry environments, farmers’ reliance on crop biodiversity is an essential part of ex ante risk management strategies. Thus, the conservation of relevant germplasms is instrumental to hedge against weather related uncertainty.
Wetlands are considered to perform a number of ecosystem services, including the improvement of water quality. However, few empirical studies have been carried out on the capacity of wetlands to perform a water treatment function, or on the demand for this function, with the result that most estimates of the value of this service are based on a weak foundation. Furthermore, the measurement of this function is confounded by the complications in trying to assess water quality entering and leaving wetlands because of surface to groundwater interactions.
Land management technology adoption: production risk, risk aversion and crop productivity in Ethiopia: A comparison study
The agriculture sector in Ethiopia is characterized by low external input use and low productivity. It is also characterized by high nutrient depletion and soil erosion that limit farmers’ ability to increase agricultural production and reduce poverty and food insecurity.
Food insecurity is a common problem in Ethiopia because of natural (e.g. drought, flood) and idiosyncratic risks (e.g. illness). To reduce the welfare impact of risks, households use different risk coping strategies such as diversification of crops, different crop management practices, and informal risk sharing mechanisms.
The objective is to identify the drivers of the adoption of sustainable land management practices by coffee farmers in Costa Rica
This project is an initiative by TerrAfrica at the World Bank to provide analytical contributions to the mobilization of additional financial resources for Sustainable Land Management in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Poverty and Land Degradation in Ethiopia: How to Reverse the Spiral?
Biomass fuel consumption and dung use as fertilizer: some evidence from rural households in the Amhara region of Ethiopia
The two core objectives of the project are: 1. To examine the factors that determine woody biomass and dung consumption as fuel sources. 2. To examine the factors that determine farmers’ adoption and intensity of use of dung as fertilizer.
The main objective of this project is to identify and analyze effects of land certification on land-related investments and rural land markets.
This project aims to achieve two objectives: to identify the determinants of common property forest management (CPFM) and estimate the effects of CPFM on the planting of trees on-farm in the Ethiopian Highlands.
According to advocates, eco-certification can improve developing country farmers’ environmental and economic performance. However, these notional benefits can be undercut by self-selection: the tendency of relatively wealthy farmers already meeting eco-certification standards to disproportionately participate.
Open access post-harvest grazing is widespread in mixed crop-livestock systems. This discourages conservation agriculture, which depends on keeping the soil surface covered with crop residues. One way to reduce open access grazing is through restricting communal grazing access to allow rights of exclusion, while simultaneously improving the production of livestock feeds.
The Effects of Storage Technology and Training on Post-Harvest Losses. Evidence from Small-Scale Farms in Tanzania
We analyze the impact of a new storage technology and training on post-harvest losses among small-scale maize farmers in rural Tanzania. The analysis is based on data collected by means of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which farmers were randomized into one of three groups: a control group and two treatment groups. Farmers in the first treatment group received training on post-harvest management practices, and farmers in the second treatment group were provided with hermetic (airtight) bags for storing maize, as well as the training administered to the first treatment group.
We pair a county-level panel of annual agricultural production with daily weather outcomes to measure the effects of temperature fluctuations on total agricultural output value of farming, forestry, animal husbandry and fishing in China.
The nexus between climate change, agriculture, and poverty has become a major topic of concern, especially for dry regions, which represent a large share of the world’s population and ecosystems vulnerable to climate change. In spite of this, to date, few studies have examined the impacts of climate change on agriculture and the adaptation strategies of vulnerable farmers from emerging semi-arid regions with dualist agriculture, in which subsistence farms coexist with commercial farms.
Interaction between crop insurance and technology adoption decisions: The case of wheat farmers in Chile
This paper examines relationships between crop insurance and input technology decisions among Chilean wheat farmers. Using nationwide farm-level data, a bivariate probit model is estimated. We investigate the extent to which the adoption of production input technologies is associated with farmers’ participation in the
Climate change perceptions and adaptive responses of small-scale farmers in two Guatemalan landscapes
The productivity of certain crops such as coffee (Coffea arabica L.), maize (Zea mays) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is expected to decline in Central America because of climate change. This will impact regional economies and livelihoods of smallholder farmers relying on these crops for their food security and livelihoods.
Climate change will affect the distribution, productivity and profitability of coffee production in Central America, negatively impacting national economies and small farmer livelihoods.
On the impact of land cover change: How decreasing wild pollinators’ natural habitat affects smallholder crop production in Tanzania
Smallholder farms in Tanzania rely on wild pollinators, but there are drastic changes in land use which result in the reduction of wild pollinators’ natural habitat, that is, forests. Our interest is to show how this affects crop revenue of smallholder farm households
Smallholders at a Crossroad: Intensify or Fall behind? Exploring Alternative Livelihood Strategies in a Globalized World.
The chocolate market is experiencing a wave of market differentiation thanks to the emergence of the bean‐to‐bar movement. Cacao is seeing both a rise in demand for mass markets and a process of market bifurcation into more specialized, high‐quality products for wealthy urban consumers. For the specialized market, the quality and origin of the beans are important attributes. Direct trading between chocolate makers and famers seeks to promote the conservation of rare cultivars and traditional agroforestry systems, while lifting farmers out of poverty.
Quality as a driver of sustainable agricultural value chains: The case of the relationship coffee model.
Specialty coffee markets that recognize coffee‐quality price premiums can improve business conditions for smallholders and promote agro‐ecological practices. We studied the Relationship Coffee Model (RCM), a business model that supports long‐term partnerships between coffee buyers and smallholders based on product quality. We examined how biophysical conditions and production practices affect smallholders’ ability to participate in this model. Furthermore, we considered common unobservable variables driving growers’ participation such as farm soil quality and connection to social networks.
Challenges and opportunities for the sustainability transition in global trade (Introduction)
Climate-smart agricultural practices and welfare of rural smallholders in Ethiopia: Does planting method matter?
The purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence on the impact of a climate-smart agricultural practice (row planting) on the welfare of rural households. Data collected from 260 households in Gubalafto woreda of Amhara region in Ethiopia were analyzed using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) and a Semi-parametric Local Instrumental Variable (LIV) version of the generalized Roy model. The results from the PSM model revealed that adoption of row planting technology has a positive and significant impact on per capita consumption and on crop income per hectare.
This paper focuses on improved storage and preservation technologies as an adaptation strategy in response to climate change.
Guía de análisis costo beneficio. Aplicación para medidas de adaptación al cambio climático en el sector agropecuario en Uruguay
El objetivo de este texto es presentar una guía práctica para la evaluación ex ante de políticas y proyectos a través del método de análisis costo beneficio (ACB), en particular para su aplicación en medidas de adaptación al cambio climático en el sector agropecuario.
Farmers’ choice of market channels and producer prices in India: Role of transportation and communication networks
This paper assesses the effect of transportation and communication networks on farmers’ choice of market channels for paddy and wheat, and subsequently on the prices they receive from these channels. It is found that smallholder farmers sell more to informal channels i.e. local traders and input dealers, and typically receive lower prices from them compared to the government-set minimum support prices (MSP). The prices realized from the sales in regulated markets are also less than the MSP despite these being claimed to be more transparent in price discovery.
Adaptación basada en Ecosistemas: una opción para la adaptación de la agricultura al cambio climático en Centroamérica
En Centroamérica, el sector agrícola es indispensable para el desarrollo económico, el alivio de la pobreza y la preservación de la identidad cultural. Gran parte de la producción agrícola regional procede de pequeños productores. La agricultura de pequeña escala proporciona medios de vida a más de 2.4 millones de familias, representa cerca del 50% del PIB agrícola de los países centroamericanos, y provee aproximadamente el 70% de los alimentos consumidos en la región.
Instrumentos de política para control de la contaminación del agua y la emisión de GEI por fuentes difusas provenientes de la actividad agropecuaria
En los últimos años, Uruguay ha evidenciado las consecuencias de la contaminación difusa proveniente de la actividad agropecuaria, lo que ha sido abordado a través de programas voluntarios para promover prácticas productivas más limpias, la regulación generalizada del manejo y uso de suelo, y un plan de acción para la protección del agua en la cuenca del río Santa Lucía. Este trabajo busca identificar potenciales oportunidades de mejora de los instrumentos económicos existentes en Uruguay, que puedan promover el diálogo y acciones.
Naturally available wild pollination services have economic value for nature dependent smallholder crop farms in Tanzania
Despite the importance of naturally available wild pollination ecosystem services in enhancing sub-Saharan African smallholder farms’ productivity, their values to actual farming systems remain unknown. We develop a nationally representative empirical assessment by integrating nationally representative plot level panel data with spatially and temporally matched land cover maps to identify the contribution of wild pollinators to crop revenue.
Gobernanza para la Adaptación basada en Ecosistemas (AbE) para pequeños caficultores de América Central
Introducción. Las prácticas agrícolas basadas en el buen manejo de los ecosistemas son promovidas como una buena estrategia de adaptación para las actividades productivas de pequeños caficultores en la región Centroamericana. La diseminación de la información sobre innovaciones, técnicas, instrumentos, etc. entre las organizaciones y productores es clave para expandir y consolidar el uso de estas prácticas. Objetivo.
Contributing to the construction of a framework for improved gender integration into climate-smart agriculture projects monitoring and evaluation: MAP-Norway experience
The Mesoamerican Agroenvironmental Program (MAP-Norway) is a multi-dimensional rural development program implemented in Central America since 2009, working with smallholder families, producer organizations, governmental organizations, and regional governance platforms. To monitor, assess, and evaluate the effects of the program on its beneficiaries, MAP-Norway uses a series of indicators that allow project managers and donors to adapt and follow-up on the interventions.
Central America is one of the regions with the highest vulnerability to climate change, with negative effects projected to affect its economy and
The individual farmer in a developing country has little incentive to care about the public good properties of on-farm biodiversity in the form of different crop varieties. There is a common assumption that, because of this, farmers will tend to maintain too little biodiversity on their farms.
The Impact of Multiple Climate Smart Practices on Gender Differentiated Nutrition Outcomes: Panel Data Evidence from Ethiopia
Since the beginning of the decade, climate resilient green economy strategies have been proposed in many African countries. One of the pillars of the strategies is the adoption and diffusion of various climate smart agricultural practices for improving crop and livestock production and farmer income while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The effects of these innovations on household nutritional security, including gender-differentiated nutritional status, have hardly been analyzed.
The aim of this paper is to study the association between weather shocks (droughts and floods) and agricultural market performance in Mozambique. To do so, we employ a dyadic regression analysis on monthly maize prices, transport costs, and spatial identification of markets as well as droughts and flooded areas. Our estimates show that, while a drought reduces price differences between markets, price dispersion increases during flood periods, an effect that is mainly driven by increases in transport costs.
Smallholder farmers are one of the most vulnerable groups to climate change, yet efforts to support farmer adaptation are hindered by the lack of information on how they are experiencing and responding to climate change. More information is needed on how different types of smallholder farmers vary in their perceptions and responses to climate change, and how to tailor adaptation programs to different smallholder farmer contexts.
This paper we examine the impact of the Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on household dietary diversity and child nutrition using both waves of the Ethiopian Socioeconomic Survey. It uses various methodologies. Results indicate consistently that PSNP has not had the desired effect on household dietary diversity or child nutrition regardless of model specification or methodology, suggesting that perhaps the transfers need to be paired with additional interventions such as information about nutrition.