Carlsson, Fredrik and Olof Johansson-Stenman. 2003. “Costs and Benefits of Electric Vehicles: A 2010 Perspective.” Journal of Transport Economics and Policy 37:1: 1-28.
This paper undertakes a social cost-benefit analysis regarding an increase in the number of electric vehicles in the Swedish transport sector by year 2010.
Battery cars are generally found to be socially unprofitable, even though their private life-cycle costs and external costs are lower than those of petrol cars. One important reason for this is that electric vehicles are heavily `subsidised’ by having, in comparison with taxes on fossil fuel, a very low electricity tax. `Hybrid’ cars are more likely to be socially profitable, especially for citybased delivery trucks, which may be both privately and socially profitable without subsidies.