Blackman, Allen. 2009. “Alternative Pollution Control Policies in Developing Countries: Informal, Informational, and Voluntary.” EfD Discussion Paper 09.
In developing countries, weak environmental regulatory institutions often undermine conventional command-and-control policies. As a result, these countries are increasingly experimenting with alternative approaches that aim to leverage nonregulatory “green” pressures applied by local communities, capital markets, and consumers. This article reviews three strands of the empirical literature on this trend.