P.P. Krishnapriya is a Research Scientist at the Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University.
Rohini Somanathan is a professor of Economics at the Delhi School of Economics. She received her PhD in 1996 from Boston University and held faculty positions at Emory University, the University of Michigan and the Indian Statistical Institute before joining the Delhi School of Economics in 2005. Her research focuses on how social institutions interact with public policies to shape patterns of economic and social inequality. She is particularly interested in exploring the intellectual and ideological environment within which state policy is created and justified. Within the broad area of development economics, she has worked on group identity and public goods, access to microfinance, child nutrition programs and environmental health. As part of her professional and other activities, she is on the Executive Committee of the International Economic Association, on the governing body of the Indira Gandhi Institute for Development Research and a trustee of the NGO SRIJAN. She has also been part of the annual consultations on the Budget in the Ministry of Finance in India. Webpage: Click here
Wolfgang is a postdoctoral researcher at the Department of Economics and funded by Formas COMMONS.
Eswaran Somanathan is a professor in the Economics and Planning unit, Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), Delhi and the Program Director of the Centre for research on the Economics of Climate, Food, Energy and Environment (CECFEE). His research is in the economics of environment and development and microeconomic theory. He is the Editor of the journal Environment and Development Economics published by Cambridge University press and was a Co-ordinating Lead Author for Working Group III of the Fifth Assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. He has recently joined as an Expert in the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) led National Task Force. He received his PhD in economics from Harvard in 1995, and has taught at Princeton, the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor and Emory University. Webpage: Click here
Eugenia is Communication Officer and Research Fellow for the Environment Development Initiative for Central America (EfD-CA) at the Economics and Environment for Development Research Program - CATIE. Eugenia holds a Master's degree on Developing Economies from the National University of Costa Rica.
Magnus Hennlock is a research fellow at the Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
Efthymia Kyriakopoulou is a Research Fellow at the Environmental Economics Unit, University of Gothenburg and Visiting Researcher at the Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Roy
Marcela Jaime is an assistant professor in the School of Management and Business (Escuela de Administración y Negocios (EAN)) at the University of Concepcion. She obta
Jessica Coria is an associate professor at the Department of Economics at the University of Gothenburg.
Carolyn Fischer is a senior fellow at Resources for the Future and currently a Marie Skłodowska–Curie Fellow of the European Commission, visiting at the Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) in Venic
Åsa Löfgren is Associate Professor and Assistant Head of Department at the Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
Thomas Sterner is a professor of environmental economics in Gothenburg and a university fellow at RFF, in 2012-2013 he was on sabbatical leave from Gothenburg and worked as Chief Economist at
Hosts: The Ministry of Environment and Energy (MINAE) of the Republic of Costa Rica, National Forestry Financing Fund (FONAFIFO), and the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) Partners: Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE) Sponsor: The Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) Objectives
What does the climate agreement from COP21 in Paris mean? French diplomats managed to unite the world in a climate agreement. COP21 in Paris has been considered a success, but what does the agreement mean and was it a good deal? What else needs to be done?
EfD-Kenya held its first Annual Workshop on August 7, 2013 at Fairview Hotel in Nairobi. The workshop brought together researchers, policy makers, academia and other stakeholders in the environment sector.
Jorge Bonilla willdefend his thesis, "Essays on the Economics of Air Quality Control" on June 11 at 09.15 in room E 45, School of Business, Economics and Law (Gothenburg)
EfD in Ethiopia will be represented in the 27th Conference of the International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE). Dr Zenebe Gebreegziabher will be presenting a paper entitled "Institutions and Sustainable Land Use: the Case of Forest and Grazing Lands in Northern Ethiopia" at the conference. The theme of the conference is "The Global Landscape of Agriculture".
Exploring the role of index insurance on farmers’ adaptation to climate change strategies: a field experiment with Costa Rican coffee farmers
Understanding farmers’ responses to climate change is fundamental for the design of adaptation strategies in developing countries.
The purpose of this project is to test a bargaining game developed by Saborio-Rodriguez, Kwasnica and Shortle (2013) using experiments in a laboratory. In the game an environmental agreement to deal with water pollution is negotiated among three players located along a river. Negotiation leads to social optimum reduction in emission accompanied by a set of monetary transfers.
Meta-analysis of livelihood impacts of payments for environmental services programmes in developing countries
Payments for environmental services (PES) programmes have been widely promoted over the last few decades in many developing countries. Improving the livelihoods of environmental services (ES) suppliers is not only seen as a side benefit but is often considered a prerequisite for the viability of PES. Yet, the ability to draw ‘overview lessons’ over the impacts of PES on livelihoods from literature review studies remains limited.
All environmental policies involve costs of implementation and management that are distinct from pollution sources’ abatement costs. In practice, regulators and sources usually share these administrative costs. We examine theoretically an optimal policy consisting of an emissions tax and the distribution of administrative costs between the government and regulated sources of pollution. Our focus is on the optimal distribution of administrative costs between polluters and the government and the optimal level of the emissions tax in relation to marginal pollution damage.
Subsidios a hogares para inducir adopción de tecnologías de combustión de leña más eficiente y menos contaminantes: Simulación para el caso de Temuco y Padre Las Casas
We study the effect of a household subsidy to induce the adoption of more efficient and less polluting wood combustion technologies. We compare, through numerical simulations, several subsidy designs with respect to the impact on aggregate emissions, costs, and cost-effectiveness indicators. Two variables that turn out to be important for the performance of a subsidy program are the remaining time that an existing equipment can be used and the access of the households to credit to fund the co-payment of the equipment.
Hypothetical bias is one of the main issues bedeviling the field of nonmarket valuation. The general criticism is that survey responses reflect how people would like to behave, rather than how they actually behave. In our study of climate change and carbon emissions reductions, based on the increasing bulk of evidence from psychology and economics regarding the effects of making promises, we investigate the effect of an oath script in a contingent valuation survey.
This book is a remarkable case study of an environmental policy initiative for a national environmental regulatory system in the information age. In 1995 the Indonesian Ministry of Environment took the bold step to launch an environmental disclosure initiative called the Program for Pollution Control, Evaluation and Rating (PROPER). Under PROPER, environmental performance of companies is mapped into a five-color grading scale – Gold for excellent, Green for very good, Blue for good, Red for non-compliance, and Black for causing environmental damage. These ratings are then publicly disclosed through a formal press conference and posted on the internet. Not only did this simple rating scheme create a major media buzz and enhanced environmental awareness of the general public, but it also unleashed a wide range of performance incentives that showed how markets with environmental information could function in a developing country setting.
Discounting has the dubious distinction of being the most controversial issue in social cost-benefit analysis. This is largely because choosing the discount rate will often dominate other choices a modeler makes. For example, consider how we might estimate future damages from greenhouse gas emissions.
Using a sequential discrete choice experiment, we investigate preferences for distributing the economic burden of reducing CO2 emissions in the two largest CO2-emitting countries: the United States and China.
Resilience to specified kinds of disasters is an active area of research and practice. However, rare or unprecedented disturbances that are unusually intense or extensive require a more broad-spectrum type of resilience.
Climate change represents a serious threat to the economic growth potential in low income countries. Instead of investing in growth, they may be drawn into strife and conflict. Climate change and the global politics to deal with it, could however also present a number of interesting opportunities for developing countries.
We analyze the interaction between a reliable source of electricity production and intermittentsources such as wind or solar power. We first characterize the optimal energy mix, emphasizing the availability of the intermittentsource as a major parameter for the optimal investment in capacity.
We examine regulations for managing pest resistance to pesticide varieties in a temporally and spatially explicit framework. We compare the performance of the EPA’s mandatory refuges and a tax (or subsidy) on the pesticide variety under several biological assumptions on pest mobility and the heterogeneity of farmers’ pest vulnerability.
Regulating common-pool resources is welfare enhancing for society but not necessarily for all users who therefore may oppose regulations. We examine the short-term impact of common-pool resource regulations on welfare distribution.
The economics of climate change and the various measures that should be implemented to reduce future damages are highly tied to the use of cost-benefit analysis. Traditional approaches ignore the fact that environmental amenities do not experience the same growth rate as do most of the sectors in the economy, which leads to changing relative prices. Uncertainty should also be considered, especially when one is conducting cost-benefit analysis involving the long-run damages from climate change. This article reviews some theoretical approaches to the economics of discounting and discusses issues associated with unbalanced growth, uncertainty, and spatial discounting.
The term decoupling refers to breaking the link between ‘environmental bads’ and ‘economic goods.’ Decoupling environmental pressures from economic growth is one of the main objectives of the OECD Environmental Strategy for the First Decade of the 21st Century, adopted by OECD Environment Ministers in 2001.
In this paper, we explore the synergies and tradeoffs between abatement of global and local pollution. We built a unique dataset of Swedish heat and power plants with detailed boiler-level data 2001-2009 on not only production and inputs but also emissions of CO2 and NOx.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether community-based wildlife conservation can potentially be added in rural farmers’ investment portfolio to diversify and consequently reduce agricultural risk.
Twenty years ago, governments gathered for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro. The “Rio Declaration” laid out several principles of sustainable development, including the central role of policy instruments. In this article, we take stock of where we stand today in implementing sound and effective environmental policy instruments throughout the world, particularly in developing and transitional economies.
Thomas Sterner's book is an attempt to encourage more widespread and careful use of economic policy instruments. The book compares the accumulated experiences of the use of economic policy instruments in the U.S. and Europe, as well as in rich and poor countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
We study how uncertainty about climate change severity affects the relative benefits of early abatement and a portfolio of research and development (R&D) in lowering future abatement costs. Optimal early abatement depends on the curvature of the marginal benefit and marginal abatement cost (MAC) functions and how the uncertain parameter affects marginal benefits.
Stabilizing global greenhouse gas concentrations at levels to avoid significant climate risks will require massive ‘‘decarbonization’’ of all the major economies over the next few decades, in addition to the reduced emissions from other GHGs and carbon sequestration. Achieving the necessary scale of emissions reductions will require a multifaceted policy effort to support a broad array of technological and behavioral changes. Change on this scale will require sound, well-thought-out strategies.
Estándares vs. Sistemas de Permisos Transables con Costos de Fiscalización: Una aplicación al caso de fuentes fijas en Bogotá, Colombia
We study the cost effectiveness property of different control strategies for improving environmental quality. Our prospective analysis considers the application of Transferable Emissions Permit System (TEPS), Transferable Ambient Permit System (TAPS) and Standards (STD) applied on fix sources in Bogota-Colombia. A numerical simulation model allowed us to obtain costs of each regulatory system, which were compared with associated urban environmental quality. The results show that the most cost effective regulation for any environmental quality goal is TEPS, followed by TAPS and finally STD.
The objective of the present paper is to investigate the robustness of the well-known result that pre-set default options determine people’s choices. We do so by conducting a field experiment among environmental economists attending a large international conference on environmental economics.
This paper analyzes how fossil fuel-producing countries can counteract climate policy. We analyze the exhaustion of oil resources and the subsequent transition to a backstop technology as a strategic game between the consumers and producers of oil, which we refer to simply as ‘OECD’ and ‘OPEC’, respectively.
We use economic analysis to evaluate grandfathering, auctioning, and benchmarking approaches for allocation of emissions allowances and then discuss practical experience from European and American schemes.
Global climate change stands out from most environmental problems because it will span generations and force us to think in new ways about intergenerational fairness. It involves the delicate problem of complex coordination between countries on a truly global scale. As long as fossil fuels are too cheap, climate change policy will engage all major economies.
Much of the improvement in living standards in developed and developing countries alike is attributable to the exploitation of nonrenewable and renewable resources. The problem is to know when the exploitation occurs at rates and with technologies that are sustainable.
This paper takes as its starting point the observation that fuel prices – and thus taxes – are important for good management of climate change and other environmental problems. To economists this should be no surprise yet it seems that the role of fuel taxation as an instrument of climate policy has not been fully appreciated. It is however one of the few policy instruments that, since several decades, has actually reduced fuel consumption appreciably.
In this paper, we analyze the effects of the choice of price (taxes) versus quantity (tradable permits) instruments on the policy response to technological change. We show that if policy responses incur transactional and political adjustment costs, environmental targets are less likely to be adjusted under tradable permits than under emission taxes. This implies that the total level of abatement over time might remain unchanged under tradable permits while it will increase under emission taxes.
This book by Thomas Sterner and Jessica Coria is an attempt to encourage more widespread and careful use of economic policy instruments. The book compares the accumulated experiences of the use of economic policy instruments in the U.S. and Europe, as well as in rich and poor countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Ambitious in scope, it discusses the design of instruments that can be employed in any country in a wide range of contexts, including transportation, industrial pollution, water pricing, waste, fisheries, forests, and agriculture.
Production Functions for Nile Perch and Tilapia Fisheries: A case study of Uganda’s Section of Lake Victoria
In this study we seek to explain the determinants of catches for the Nile perch and tilapia fisheries of Uganda’s section of Lake Victoria. Production functions are estimated from data collected from a survey of 100 boats engaged in fishing of Nile perch, and 150 boats fishing tilapia, in 3 districts along Lake Victoria.