We analyze if poorest people in rural localities of Región de Los Lagos, Chile have benefited in terms of poverty alleviation with salmon farms establishment within 1992-2002 period. In order to assess the impact of this event on poverty, we compare areas with and without salmon farms. We calculate poverty rates through small area estimation models at household level and we approach through differences in differences. Our findings suggest, that poverty decreased more in localities with salmon farms than in those who do not. We also identify geographic distances, betw
We test if the establishment of salmon farms in remote coastal areas had a significant impact on poverty reduction in the period 1992–2002 in Los Lagos Region, Chile.
This study evaluates the impact on poverty produced by the establishment of salmon aquaculture in rural localities of Los Lagos region in Chile in the period 1992 - 2002.
This paper examines dependence on environmental resources and impacts on household welfare among the indigenous San and Mier rural communities neighbouring Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in South Africa. Data on the various household income types, including environmental income, were collected through a structured survey of 200 households. Environmental income constituted 20% of the total income. The poorest income quintile showed the highest relative dependence on environmental income (31%), though absolute environmental income increased with total income.
We live at a unique moment in history when rapid economic growth has finally lifted hundreds of millions out of deep poverty, not only in Asia and Latin America but increasingly in Africa (Sala-i-Martin and Pinkovskiy, 2010). Yet the impending damage of climate change could reverse this.
Previous studies of poverty in developing countries have to a great extent focused on the characteristics of the household head and used these as proxies for the underlying ability of the household to generate income. This paper uses five rounds of panel data to investigate the persistence of poverty in urban Ethiopia, with a particular focus on the role of intra-household heterogeneity in occupations.
Protected areas are a cornerstone of forest conservation in developing countries. Yet we know little about their effects on forest cover change or the socioeconomic status of local communities, and even less about the relationship between these effects. This paper assesses whether “win-win” scenarios are possible—that is, whether protected areas can both stem forest cover change and alleviate poverty. We examine protected areas in the Peruvian Amazon using high-resolution satellite images and household-level survey data for the early 2000s.
Economic growth in industrialized countries over the past few decades did not result in improved subjective well-being (SWB) of citizens.
Previous studies of poverty in developing countries have to a great extent focused on the characteristics of the household head and used these as proxies for the underlying ability of the household to generate income.
Unlike most studies of subjective well-being in developing countries, we use a fixed effects regression on three rounds of rich panel data to investigate the impact of relative standing on
life satisfaction of respondents in urban Ethiopia.
Recent economic growth in Tanzania has not been matched by a corresponding reduction in poverty when compared with similar episode of growth in countries such as Uganda, Ghana, etc. This has raised heated debate, whereby some analysts argue that problem lies on the GDP is compiled, and other on the validity of Household Budget Survey (HBS) data. This paper contributes to that debate by analyzing the distribution of upper tail observation using he Generalized Pareto Distributions show that HBS 2007 is characterized by extreme values of per capita expenditure when compares to 2001.
Using data spanning 15 years, we study subjective and consumption poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite rapid economic growth and declining consumption poverty, subjective poverty remains largely unchanged.
This book is about land tenure policies from an international perspective. It adds on the first book published by Holden and Otsuka entitled The Emergence of Land Markets in Africa: Assessing the Impacts on Poverty, Equity, and Efficiency (2009) in a much deeper way with a stronger and clearer focus on policy issues.
In this paper we tested if social networks at the origin, measured by religious affiliation, can affect the out-migration decision. For this purpose, we estimated a conditional logit model and a mixed logit model for the decision to migrate to one of 13 destinations, or to stay at the original location. In general, the results were as expected, given theoretical considerations, and were robust to model specification and estimation procedures. Moreover, the results support the hypothesis that religious attachment affects migration decisions.
This series spans the globe presenting leading research in economics. International applications and examples of economic progress are invaluable in a troubled world with economic booms bursting like so many penny balloons.
Biodiversity is crucial for the production of a range of marketed and non-marketed ecosystem goods and services. This paper reviews the empirical evidence for the role of terrestrial biodiversity and biodiversity conservation in economic development and poverty, at both the macro (e.g. country) and micro (e.g. farm) scales.
Impacto del Programa Ambiental Mesoamericano (MAP) en la calidad de vida y los capitales de sus familias beneneficiarias
Land degradation is a major problem undermining land productivity in the highlands of Ethiopia. This paper analyses the decisions made by individual household to adopt and intensify land conservation investment.
Las ECAS contribuyen a mejorar la calidad de vida de las familias productoras rurales a través de la capacitación vivencial, la educación de adultos y el aprendizaje por descubrimiento. Así se promueve la
experimentación y observación, el análisis grupal de resultados y la toma de decisiones.
Water resources are essential to human development processes and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals that seek, inter alia, to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal literacy, and ensure environmental sustainability.
This is a chapter in a book entitled "The Emergence of Land Markets in Africa Impacts on Poverty, Equity, and Efficiency" edited by Stein Holden, Keijiro Otsuka and Frank Place, 2009.
We investigate risk and ambiguity attitudes among Ethiopian farmers in one of the poorest regions of the world.
Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park is located in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and neighbouring Botswana. The local communities on the South African side, the Khomani San (Bushmen) and Mier living adjacent to the park have land rights inside and outside the park.
Agricultural Investment and Productivity provides a deep and systematic look at the opportunities for and constraints to investments in sustainable agriculture in East Africa, offering important insights into what works and how to analyze agricultural investments in one of the poorest regions of the world. The book critically examines the reasons behind East Africa's stagnant agricultural productivity over the past forty-five years, using the primary lens of investments in fertilizers, seeds, and sustainable land management technologies, These investments have a tremendous impact on production volume, ultimately affecting the income of millions of families throughout the region.
We examine the driving forces behind farm households’ decisions to adapt to climate change, and the impact of adaptation on farm households’ food productivity.
From 1997 to 2005, an astonishing 5200 million USD was invested to reduce cocaine production in Colombia, the world's main cocaine producer. However, little is known about the effectiveness of policies targeting coca cultivation. This paper uses a survey-based experiment to evaluate the effects of the two main policies: eradication and alternative development programs.
Urbanization has been mentioned as one possible cause of higher food prices, and in this paper we examine some of the suggested links between urbanization and food prices.
Land degradation is a major problem undermining land productivity in the highlands of Ethiopia. This study explores the factors that affect farm households’ decisions at the plot level to invest in land conservation and how much to invest, focusing on the roles of poverty, land tenure security, and market access. Unlike most other studies, we used a double-hurdle model in the analysis with panel data collected in a household survey of 6,408 plots in the Amhara region of Ethiopia.
In this paper, the relation between poverty indicators and demographic variables is explored using household survey data from two regions in Northern Tanzania (the Lake Victoria area).
The authors looked at risk and ambiguity attitudes among Ethiopian peasants in one of the poorest regions of the world and compared their attitudes to a standard Western university student sample elicited by the same decision task.
Using household surveys with highly disaggregated geographic reference, the authors explored how national parks affect local wages in Costa Rica and how effects on local welfare can be positive or negative in different parks or even within different areas of a park.
A new EfD/RFF Book titled "Land Reforms in Asia and Africa - Impacts on Poverty and Natural Resource Management" is planned for 2012. Editors are Professors Stein Holden and Keijiro Otsuka.
"The contribution of sustainable agriculture and land management to sustainable development" - This brief discusses the potential for sustainable agriculture to contribute towards sustainable development with a particular focus on developing countries. It briefly describes different sustainable agricultural practices and the extent of their adoption, identifies constraints to their further adoption, and presents some actions and policy options that could accelerate the widespread adoption of sustainable agricultural practices.
In most low-income countries, rural households depend on mixed rain-fed agriculture/livestock production, which is very risky. Due to numerous market failures, there are few ways to shift risks to third parties.
This paper analyses differences in the choice of health care facility by ill individuals in HIV/AIDS-affected households in the Free State province of South Africa.
Food-for-work (FFW) is the most widely used type of public works program in Ethiopia through which a high share of the food aid is distributed.
Fertilizer use (including dung) in Ethiopia is low, particularly in the northern highlands, where dung is a significant source of household fuel.