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Forestry

2014-11-15

Local Community Participation under Reformed Forest Management in Kenya: Lessons and Policy Implications

Forest tenure reforms are occurring in many developing countries around the world. These reforms typically include devolution of forest lands to local people and communities, which has attracted a great deal of attention and interest. While the nature and level of devolution vary by country, all have potentially important implications for resource allocation, local ecosystem services, livelihoods and climate change.

2014-10-29

Land tenure reforms and Investment in Tanzania

Using cross sectional data obtained from the first wave of the National Panel Survey Data; this study attempts to examine empirically two issues; first the influence of land tenure reforms on sustainability of land management; second, the influence of land tenure on land investment (trees plantation).

2014-10-29

Impact of forest certification on the growth of exports in Chile

We investigate and compare the growth of export relationships of Chilean forestry companies based on intensive and extensive margins. In turn each margin consists of new export relationships (extensive margin), Survival and Deepening (intensive margin). One risk that an exporter faces during its early years are short-lived relationships, Pursa and Besedes (2010) attribute this behavior to the existence of uncertainty and imperfect information regarding the costs that firms acquire when inserted in destination countries.

2014-10-06

Forest Tenure Reform in Asia and Africa: Local Control for Improved Livelihoods, Forest Management, and Carbon Sequestration

Forest tenure reforms are occurring in many developing countries around the world. These reforms typically include devolution of forest lands to local people and communities, which has attracted a great deal of attention and interest. While the nature and level of devolution vary by country, all have potentially important implications for resource allocation, local ecosystem services, livelihoods and climate change. 

2014-08-15

The Environment for Development Initiative: lessons learned in research, academic capacity building and policy intervention to manage resources for sustainable growth

This article reviews the history of the Environment for Development (EfD) initiative, its activities in capacity building and policy-oriented research, and case studies at its centres in Chile, China, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania.

2014-08-15

Adoption and disadoption of electric cookstoves in urban Ethiopia: Evidence from panel data

Previous studies on improved cook stove adoption in developing countries use cross-sectional data, which make it difficult to control for unobserved heterogeneity and investigate what happens to adoption over time. We use robust non-linear panel data and hazard models on three rounds of panel data from urban Ethiopia to investigate the determinants of adoption and disadoption of electric cook stoves over time.

2014-08-10

The Impact of Common Property Right Forestry: Evidence from Ethiopian Villages

We use inverse probability weighting to examine the effects of a unique two-pronged common-property forestry program in the Gimbo district of Ethiopia, which includes Joint Forestry Management and improved non-timber forest product marketing efforts. The program was found to have affected household access to agricultural land, and, thus, reduced livestock holdings, due to program strictures. Furthermore, despite those reductions, there is evidence that the program had economically significant effects on other activities.

2014-07-21

Child Labor, the Wealth Paradox, and Common Forest Management in Bolivia

That wealthier developing country households may rely more heavily on child labor than poorer households has come to be known as the “wealth paradox.” This paper tests for a wealth paradox with regard to common natural resource wealth by analyzing the relationship between child labor and improved common property forest management (CPFM) in Bolivia.

2014-06-12

Effects of Protected Areas on Forest Cover Change and Local Communities Evidence from the Peruvian Amazon

Protected areas are a cornerstone of forest conservation in developing countries. Yet we know little about their effects on forest cover change or the socioeconomic status of local communities, and even less about the relationship between these effects. This paper assesses whether “win-win” scenarios are possible—that is, whether protected areas can both stem forest cover change and alleviate poverty. We examine protected areas in the Peruvian Amazon using high-resolution satellite images and household-level survey data for the early 2000s.

2014-03-20

The Economic Value of Natural Features in Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park

Visitors to Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, located between Botswana and South Africa, are concerned about the kind of activities that take place within the park. This is not surprising, given the highly fragile Kgalagadi ecosystem. In our study, visitors assigned a monetary amount to the value they derive from pristine tourism opportunities. If this monetary value is greater than the amount that local communities assign to their livelihood activities in the park, then one group can compensate the other.

2013-12-17

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, or REDD, is a mechanism for providing financial rewards to countries that reduce carbon emissions caused by the loss and degradation of their forests. In concept, REDD resembles other Payment for Environmental Services (PES) programs. However, REDD emphasizes a reduction in deforestation and degradation rates from expected levels, also known as avoided deforestation and degradation.

2013-10-20

Effects of Exclusion from a Conservation Policy: Negative Behavioral Spillovers from Targeted Incentives

A critical issue in the design of incentive mechanisms is the choice of whom to target. For forests, the leading schemes: [i] target locations with high ecosystem-service density; [ii] target additionality, i.e., locations where conservation would not occur without the incentive; or, at least effectively, [iii] reward previous private choices to conserve forest. We use a field experiment to examine the changes in contributions to forest conservation when we introduce each of those three selection rules.

2013-09-19

Evaluating forest conservation policies in developing countries using remote sensing data: An introduction and practical guide

Rigorous, objective evaluation of forest conservation policies in developing countries is needed to ensure that the limited financial, human, and political resources devoted to these policies are put to good use. Yet such evaluations remain uncommon. Recent advances in conservation best practices, the widening availability of high-resolution remotely sensed forest-cover data, and the dissemination of geographic information system capacity have created significant opportunities to reverse this trend.

2013-08-01

Ecopayments and Deforestation in Costa Rica: A Nationwide Analysis of PSA’s Initial Years

We offer a nationwide analysis of the initial years of Costa Rica’s PSA program, which pioneered environmental-services payments and inspired similar initiatives. Our estimates of this program’s impact on deforestation, between 1997 and 2000, range from zero to one-fifth of 1% per year (i.e., deforestation is avoided on, at most, 2 out of every 1,000 enrolled hectares). The main explanation for such a low impact is an already low national deforestation rate. We also consider the effect of enrollment.

2013-06-01

Forest land rights, tenure types, and farmers' investment incentives in China: An empirical study of Fujian Province

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of land rights and tenure types on farmers' investment behavior in Chinese collective forests, using household survey data from Fujian Province. Design/methodology/approach – In this study, the authors conducted a household survey in Fujian province of 520 randomly selected forest farmers. The authors used a random-effects Tobit model to estimate the impact of land rights and other components on, for example, tenure security and harvest quota, and the impact of tenure types on farmers' investment incentives.

2013-05-31

Dynamics of indirect land-use change: Empirical evidence from Brazil

The expansion of a given land use may affect deforestation directly if forests are cleared to free land for this use, or indirectly, via the displacement of other land-use activities from non-forest areas towards the forest frontier. Unlike direct land conversion, indirect land-use changes affecting deforestation are not immediately observable. They require the linking of changes occurring in different regions.

2013-05-16

Does community and household tree planting imply increased use of wood for fuel? Evidence from Ethiopia

As a result of many years of deforestation, fuelwood scarcity is a critical problem in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian government encouraged afforestation and tree growing at both the community and household levels as a policy to stem deforestation and degradation of agricultural lands. The rationale underlying the tree growing strategy is that some significant part of whatever is planted will be used as fuelwood, thereby reducing the demand for wood from native forestlands and use of crop residues and animal dung needed for soil improvement.

2013-05-14

Property rights, tenure security and forest investment incentives: evidence from China's Collective Forest Tenure Reform

This paper assesses how tenure reform in China's collective forest sector affects Chinese farmer households’ perception of tenure security and propensity to invest in their forestland. A large database consisting of information from 3,180 households in eight provinces from south to north is used to explore factors correlated with more strongly perceived tenure security and determinants of forest-related investment.

2013-05-09

Property rights, institutions and choice of fuelwood source in rural Ethiopia

This study examines the relationship between property rights, defined by land tenure security and the strength of local-level institutions, and household's preferences for fuelwood source. A multinomial regression model applied to survey data collected in rural Ethiopia underpins the analysis. Results from the discrete choice model indicate that active local-level institutions increase household dependency on open access forests, while land security reduces open access forest dependence.

2013-04-24

Community Controlled Forests, Carbon Sequestration and REDD+ Some Evidence from Ethiopia

REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, “plus” afforestration) is a tool that supports forest carbon-enhancing approaches in the developing world in order to mitigate and hopefully reverse climate change. A key issue within REDD+ is to appropriately bring in the almost 25% of developing country forests that are effectively controlled by communities.

2013-03-01

Governance, Location and Avoided Deforestation from Protected Areas: Greater Restrictions Can Have Lower Impact, Due to Differences in Location

For Acre, in the Brazilian Amazon, we find that protection types with differences in governance, including different constraints on local economic development, also differ in their locations. Taking this into account, we estimate the deforestation impacts of these protection types that feature different levels of restrictions. To avoid bias, we compare these protected locations with unprotected locations that are similar in their characteristics relevant for deforestation.

2013-01-22

Forest-poverty nexus: Exploring the contribution of forests to rural livelihoods in Kenya

This paper explores the contribution of forests to the livelihoods of local communities in Kenya. The paper uses survey data to explore resource extraction and the economic reliance of households on forests. The results suggest that both rich and poor households depend on forests, and that membership in forest user groups, and therefore participation in forest activities, may be based on a household's monetary rather than asset income. The results imply that forests support the living standards of the poor through the diversification of household income sources.

2012-10-19

Success factors for pairing conservation with enhanced forest and fish-based livelihoods

In settings in which people rely directly on either forest or marine resources, protecting both the natural resources and livelihoods is challenging. Findings from Tanzania suggest that, where budgets are limited, key factors for a successful combination of livelihood and conservation policies include the strategic location of livelihood projects that target those most dependent on the protected resource rather than those most likely to cooperate with access restrictions.

2012-10-18

REDD+ and Community-Controlled Forests in Low-Income Countries Any Hope for a Linkage?

Deforestation and forest degradation are estimated to account for between 12 percent and 20 percent of annual greenhouse gas emissions. These activities, largely in the developing world, released about 5.8 Gt per year in the 1990s, which was more than all forms of transport combined. The idea behind REDD+ is that payments for sequestering carbon can tip the economic balance away from loss of forests and in the process yield climate benefits.

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