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Improving the potential for successful implementation of REDD in Tanzania

REDD – Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation – is a new form of payment for environmental services that has to potential to fund forest protection in Tanzania. REDD programs would build on the Government of Tanzania’s introduction of new forest laws that have enabled the implementation of Participatory Forest Management (PFM)Because any policy that slows forest degradation does so by limiting resource access bynearby forest-dependent communities, implementing REDD will require understanding those communities forest management/use decisions and their likely response to REDD policies, even if REDD policies funnel monies to those communities.


Protecting Peri-Urban forests and livelihoods: Spatial Enforcement Issues and Incentives for Community-Based Initiatives

This project stems from discussions with forest managers whose existing policies have not created the hoped-for incentives for locals to engage in enforcement of access restrictions by outsiders. This is particularly important for Kibaha’s forests because of their proximity to Dar es Salaam, a large city with high demand for charcoal and timber. Forest managers do not have mechanisms for influencing where local villagers harvest NTFPs; they also have little information on which to base their allocation of scarce patrol efforts.


Investments, Labor Market Participation and Participatory Forest Management in Tanzania

The goal of the proposed project is to improve environmental sustainability and reduce rural poverty in Tanzania. The project seeks to achieve this goal by focusing on PFM, which has its main goal to increase forest stocks. The proposed project looks at the linkage between forest policies and standard on-farm economic effects. The project is therefore expected to increase understanding about how better forest managment impacts critical, standard economic objectives like investments and labor market development


Urban energy transition and technology adoption: the case of Tigrai, northern Ethiopia

Deforestation in Ethiopia has resulted in growing fuel scarcity and higher firewood prices in urban centers. Urban centers have long been dependent on the rural hinterlands for their fuel. The use of biofuels of rural origin covers about 90% of the urban fuel use. The dependence of urban centers on their rural hinterlands has aggravated the deforestation. One response to reducing the pressure of urban centers on their rural hinterlands could be through substitutions between or switching from one fuel to another, i.e., through energy transition. For example, through substituting away or switching from fuelwood to electricity. Electricity as cooking fuel is cleaner and do not cause deforestation.


Household forest values under varying management regimes in rural Ethiopia

Ethiopia’s forest cover is estimated at less than 4% of the total land area of about 1 million km2. The consequences of deforestation and forest degradation include reduced agricultural production and decreased household welfare. The Ethiopian government promulgated a forest proclamation and approved the first forest policy in 2007. In its recent comprehensive plan referred to as Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP), the government also indicated its plan to increase forest cover from about 4% to 9% over a period of five years. The reality on the ground suggests that there is continuing deforestation and mismanagement of existing forests. The government has acknowledged in its forestry laws and regulations that depletion of these resources have resulted in reduced agricultural productivity and subsequently reduced quality of life of the rural people. Moreover, frequent restructuring of the main government body responsible for natural resources in general and forestry in particular meant different levels of attention paid to the sector with its implications for staffing and continuity of programs.


Corruption, Reform and Environmental Policy in the Forest Sector in Kenya

In recent times many developing countries have experienced degradation of their natural resource base namely forests, water, fisheries etc. The resource degradation has largely been blamed on the management regime of these resources. In this study we investigate the local evolution and current status of forest management regimes in Kenya.


Improving the Effectiveness of Joint Forest Management in Tanzania

Following the 1998 National Forest Policy and the Forest Act of 2002, participatory forest management (PFM) is being introduced in Tanzania, yet little rigorous analysis has been undertaken to determine the effectiveness of PFM, in terms of both protecting forest resources and improving forest-dependent livelihoods and thereby reducing poverty.


Forest Tenure in Collective-owned Forest

This project aims at finishing surveying in 8-10 provinces, establishing a comprehensive database and building an equilibrium model with capacity to analyze Supply, Demand, Trade and Policy Change.


Is Collective Titling Enough to Protect Forests? Evidence from Afro-Descendant Communities in the Colombian Pacific Region

During the mid-1990s, one of the most ambitious land reforms in recent decades took place in Colombia. The reform recognized collective land rights of 5 million hectares by Afro-Colombian groups, with the dual goals of improving livelihoods and preserving valuable ecosystems. We estimate the impact of this collective land titling program on forest cover using panel data and a difference-in-difference empirical strategy. We find that overall, collective titling significantly reduces deforestation rates, but the effect varies substantially by sub-region.


The Impact of Forest and Non-Forest Land Cover on Potable Water Treatment Costs: Panel Evidence from Ethiopia

Empirical assessment of relationships between land use and land cover (LULC) and drinking water chemical treatment cost is lacking in developing countries. This study is conducted to assess the impact of forest and non-forest land cover on water purification chemical costs using panel data collected from eight drinking water treatment plants in Ethiopia for the period of 2002-2014. Forest cover and LULC data were extracted from Global Forest Change and GlobeLand30 datasets, respectively.


Technical Efficiency in Agriculture and Its Implication on Forest Conservation in Tanzania: The Case Study of Kilosa District (Morogoro)

This paper examines technical efficiency in farming activities and its implication on forest conservation in Kilosa District. The empirical analysis is based on data collected from 301 households selected randomly from five villages in Kilosa district, of which three villages were under the REDD+ project. Two empirical models were estimated: stochastic frontier Translog production function, and forest resources extraction model.


    Creating Protected Areas on Public Lands: Is There Room for Additional Conservation?

    Most evaluations of the effectiveness of PAs have relied on indirect estimates based on comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Such methods can be biased when protection is not randomly assigned. We add to the growing literature on the impact of PAs by answering the following research questions: What is the impact of Chilean PAs on deforestation which occurred between 1986 and 2011? How do estimates of the impact of PAs vary when using only public land as control units?


    Negative leakage: The key role of forest management regimes

    A model of two regions with a common wood market is introduced. Regions may be of two types, according to their forest management regime, namely managed forest plantations (M) and unmanaged open access forests (U). It is found that when regions are of the same type, unilateral climate policy in the forestry sector leads to (positive) carbon leakage. However, when regions are of different types, unilateral climate policy results in negative carbon leakage.


    Are government incentives effective for avoided deforestation in the tropical Andean forest?

    In order to ensure the provision of goods and services from forests, many governments have promoted less-traditional conservation initiatives such as programs of payments for ecosystem services called, more broadly, direct payments for conservation. The Socio Bosque Program (SBP) is a governmental program in Ecuador that directly provides economic incentives to rural families and local and indigenous communities who have voluntarily agreed to comply with some conservation activities. An impact evaluation method (matching) was used to assess the impact of the SBP between 2008 and 2014.


    Determination of optimal rotation period for management of lumbering forests in Kenya

    This study estimates the optimal rotation period of various tree species in Kenya and applies it in the management of lumbering forests through optimal synchronization of forest plantations to achieve a steady supply to lumbering firms. The optimal rotation period of three tree species, pine, cypress, and eucalyptus, was estimated using data from Kenya Forest Service. A combined application of Chang simple production model and ​ Faustmann​ model​ reveals the optimal biological harvest age is 25 years for pine, 25 years for cypress, and 14 years for eucalyptus.


    Livelihood mushroomed: Examining household level impacts of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) under new management regime in China's state forests

    Finding alternative livelihood possibility for state worker households is crucial for the successful implementation of Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP) in China's key state forest regions. One local innovation to implement NFPP while allowing worker households alternative use of forestland is the “Contract Management Responsibility System (CMRS)”. Under CMRS, participating households have exclusive rights to harvest and grow non-timber forest products (NTFP) while fulfilling forest protection responsibility.


    Evaluation of the impact of fuelwood tree planting programmes in Tanzania

    The rapid growth in Tree Planting for Fuelwood (TPF) program indicates the importance of taking care of the increasing demand for fuelwood globally. TPF programs in Tanzania aim to sustainably meet the rising demand for fuelwood. We evaluate the impact of TPF programs on the number of trees planted and those planted for fuelwood. Using survey data, we employ the Heckman and Propensity Score Matching techniques to estimate whether households plant trees for fuelwood and can identify tree species that would influence them to plant trees.


    Prospect Theory and Tenure Reform: Impacts on Forest Management

    We examine the role of risk and time preferences in how forest owners respond to forest certification. We test hypotheses from a two-period harvest model derived from prospect theory in the context of Fujian, China, where new forest certification started in 2003. Using survey and field experiment data, we find that certification resulted in reduced harvesting, and the effect was larger for households who are more risk averse and exhibited distorted probability weighting.


    Lessons from Applying Market-Based Incentives in Watershed Management

    Watershed management is a complex activity with constraints on funding and human resources in many parts of the world, and there is a need for global effort to identify strategies that can work. To complement regulatory approaches, attention is now also being given to market-based incentives because of their potential cost-effectiveness. This study seeks to provide impetus to the use of the most successful market-based incentives to promote sustainable watershed practices through strengthening and increasing direct participation


    Smallholder Agricultural Production Efficiency of Adopters and Nonadopters of Land Conservation Technologies in Tanzania

    Promotion and supporting the adoption of land management and conservation technologies (LMCTs) among poor farming households has been considered to improve crop yields as well as production technical efficiency (TE). This article compares production efficiency between adopters and nonadopters of LMCTs in Tanzania. Using national panel data, the study applied stochastic frontier model to estimate the TE of adopters and nonadopters. The findings show that adopters of LMCTs had a relatively significantly higher TE (0.73) than their nonadopter counterparts (0.69).


    Environmental and socioeconomic drivers of Woody vegetation recovery in a human-modified landscape in the Rio Grande basin (Colombian Andes)

    In the tropics, some agricultural lands are abandoned for economic or technical reasons, leading to the recovery of woody vegetation. Our research aimed to identify the main drivers of spontaneous recovery of vegetation in a basin located in the Colombian Andes. This was done by combining spatially explicit environmental and socioeconomic variables at landscape (e.g. distances to human settlements, to roads, and to forests and mean annual precipitation) and local scales (e.g. depth of the organic layer, soil bulk density, and canopy openness).


    Ecological Restoration and Livelihood: Contribution of Planted Mangroves as Nursery and Habitat for Artisanal and Commercial Fishery

    Restoration of degraded and depleted mangrove habitats and planting of mangroves over coastal mudflats is happening at many places, but there are few studies that evaluate the flow of ecosystem services from these regenerated ecosystems. The state of Gujarat in Western India has planted thousands of hectares of mangroves over the coastal mudflats and, today, the state’s mangrove cover is nearly double that in the 1930s. However, these mangroves have limiting features: for example, these are mostly single-species, Avicenna marina, and are sparse, and lack freshwater supply.


    Environment & Forests Book Chapter-India- Three Year Action Plan Agenda, 2017-18 to 2019-20

    The Three Year Action Agenda, a NITI Aayog document, is based on extensive discussions with and inputs from the central ministries and State governments. The Governing Council of the NITI Aayog, consisting of the Prime Minister as its Chairperson and several Union Ministers and State Chief Ministers as Members, extensively deliberated on the document in its draft form at its meeting on 23rd April 2017. 


    China's second round of forest reforms: Observations for China and implications globally

    This paper provides an overview of recent forest tenure reform in rural China and a summary of findings from a series of surveys and research papers. The research papers cover several broad themes, including the impacts of enhanced policy stability, expanded farmer household forestland holding, and longer contract periods as well as a richer bundle of tenure rights, on farmers willingness to invest in money terms and labor inputs in forestry activities.


    China’s Second Round of Forest Reforms: Observations for China and Implications Globally

    This paper provides an overview of recent forest tenure reform in rural China and a summary of findings from a series of surveys and research papers. The research papers cover several broad themes, including the impacts of enhanced policy stability, expanded farmer household forestland holding, and longer contract periods as well as a richer bundle of tenure rights, on farmers willingness to invest in money terms and labor inputs in forestry activities.


    The impact of microhydroelectricity on household welfare indicators

    The use of small-scale off-grid renewable energy for rural electrification is now seen as part of the sustainable energy solutions. The expectation from such small-scale investment is that it can meet the basic energy needs of a household and subsequently improve someaspects of household welfare. However, these stated benefits remain largely hypothetical because there are data and methodological challenges in existing literature attempting to isolate such impact.


    Driving forces for households' adoption of improved cooking stoves in rural Tanzania

    With increasingly improved cooking stoves (ICS) that aim to reduce fuelwood consumption by forest-dependent households, more evidence of what drives households to adopt ICS is needed. Using data from a representative sample (N=271) of households in a rural part of eastern Tanzania, we estimated a mixed logit model to take into account the limitations of the standard multinomial logit model and relaxed the restrictive assumption of the conditional logit model.


    Fuel savings, cooking time and user satisfaction with improved biomass cookstoves

    Continued high reliance on traditional biomass fuels and stoves in developing countries gives rise to several human health, environmental, and livelihood issues. However solid data on the performance of improved biomass cooking stoves remains scarce. This paper provides controlled cooking test (CCT) evidence on fuel savings from a promising improved biomass cooking stove in Ethiopia. The stove is called Mirt(meaning “best” in Amharic), and is used to bake injera, the staple food in much of Ethiopia. Injera preparation accounts for about half the primary energy consumed in the country.


    Collective forest tenure reform and household energy consumption: A case study in Yunnan Province, China

    The recent Collective Forest Tenure Reform in China has started the process of devolving forest management rights from village collectives to households since 2003. In this paper, we study the impact of the reform on rural energy consumption. Devolving forest tenure improves farmers' access to forest products on their newly acquired forestland, and is therefore expected to increase farmers' fuelwood consumption. The reform also allows farmers to adopt some revenue-enhancing forest technologies which may lead to energy switching in farmer households.


    Ethiopia Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) Realizing Green Transformation

    The Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) of Ethiopia is a country-level diagnostic tool to support investment and policy dialogues. It highlights the key environment-related trajectories and challenges facing the country in the coming decade and beyond, and identifies pathways for simultaneously achieving economic, social, and environmental objectives in the context of Ethiopia’s Climate Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) Strategy for 2025, and Second Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP II) for 2016-2020.


      How do People in Rural India Perceive Improved Stoves and Clean Fuel? Evidence from Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand

      Improved cook stoves (ICS) have been widely touted for their potential to deliver the triple benefits of improved household health and time savings, reduced deforestation and local environmental degradation, and reduced emissions of black carbon, a significant short-term contributor to global climate change. Yet diffusion of ICS technologies among potential users in many low-income settings, including India, remains slow, despite decades of promotion.


      Does purchase price matter for the waiting time to start using energy efficient technologies: Experimental evidence from rural Ethiopia?

      this study uses a randomized experiment in rural Ethiopia to test on how quickly energy efficient technology (an improved stove) is put in use after the technologies is disseminated. We evaluate two concepts that may affect usage of a product: screening (related to valuation of a product) and sunk cost effects (based on the price the potential user paid for the product). A standard Tobit and IV-Tobit methods of estimations are used for testing sunk cost and screening effects, respectively.


      Essays on forest conservation policies, weather and school attendance

      The first chapter of my dissertation Heterogeneous Local Spillovers from Protected Areas in Costa Rica (with Juan Robalino & Alexander Pfaff) offers a contribution to the literature estimating the impact of protected areas (PAs) on preventing tropical deforestation. It extends previous work by looking at how the establishment of national parks affects land use change in the neighboring private land. This is a relevant question as most analyses to date examine the realized deforestation impacts of PAs only within their borders, generally finding reduced deforestation effects.


      Heterogeneous Local Spillovers from Protected Areas in Costa Rica

      Spillovers can significantly reduce or enhance the net effects of land-use policies, yet there exists little rigorous evidence concerning their magnitudes. We examine how Costa Rica’s national parks affect deforestation in nearby areas. We find that average deforestation spillovers are not significant in 0–5 km and 5–10 km rings around the parks. However, this average blends multiple effects that are significant and that vary in magnitude across the landscape, yielding varied net impacts.


      Determinants of Successful Collective Management of Forest Resources: Evidence from Kenyan Community Forest Associations

      Participation of local communities in management and utilization of forest resources through collective action has become widely accepted as a possible solution to failure of centralized, top-down approaches to forest conservation. Developing countries have thus resorted to devolution of forest management through initiatives such as Participatory Forest Management (PFM) and Joint Forest Management (JFM). In Kenya, under such initiatives, communities have been able to self-organize into community forest associations (CFAs).


      A Study of Forestry Policy Evolution and Development Tendency in China After the Reform and Opening-up

      This study reviewed the forestry policy evolution in China as of the reform and opening-up, and concluded the three basic evolution tendencies in the forestry policies, i.e., 1) The Pareto improvement has become the core principle of policy adjustments; 2) The forest tenure owned by peasants has been expanded and strengthened in practices; 3) The forest protection is an essential part included in the forestry development strategy. Based on the review and analysis, the authors came up with the new thoughts on the future