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The first Energy Workshop held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Research on energy demand in developing countries is important for many reasons. The existing widespread use of solid energy sources (e.g. fuelwood, dung, charcoal, coal, leaves, twigs) in Sub-Saharan Africa, and in the developing world in general, has a number of environmental implications. Deforestation, disturbance in watersheds, indoor air pollution and loss of biodiversity are some to mention. On the other hand, climbing the “energy ladder” has implications for greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, understanding the pattern of household energy demand and its implications on the environment is crucial to formulate appropriate energy policies that affect household welfare, local environment and climate change.


REDD may lead to the revival of colonialism

“If we aren’t careful, a system like REDD may lead to a revision of colonialism. The crucial problem is that we in Tanzania don´t have the required facts about our own forests,” said Professor Claude Mung'ong'o of University of Dar es Salaam's Institute of Resource Assessment to the audience of policy makers and researchers attending the Policy Day of the fifth EfD Annual Meeting 2011.


    Environmental Valuation course draws participants from around world

    21 researchers and PhD students from across the globe currently attend the course Environmental Valuation that is held at School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg in Sweden 7 November – 9 December. A vivid interest in natural resources and environmental issues made them come from China, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania, Uruguay and Vietnam.


    Forest Tenure Impact Evaluation Workshop at World Bank completed

    The Environment for Development initiative arranged a Forest Tenure Impact Evaluation Workshop on April 21, in connection to the World Bank’s annual conference on land and poverty in Washington D.C. on April 18-20. Recent developments in forest management institutions in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania were reviewed during this workshop, and a potential impact evaluation program for forest tenure reform in East Africa was discussed. The workshop was held on Thursday April 21 and was open for all conference participants.


    How can people interact to solve environmental issues?

    Plans for the research program Human Cooperation to Manage Natural Resources were elaborated on January 17-19 at Indiana University in Bloomington. Project partners are Nobel laureate Elinor Ostrom's research group at Indiana University, Resources for the Future in Washington, and the Environmental Economics Unit, University of Gothenburg.


    EfD Ethiopia co-organized African Regional Dialogue on forests, governance and climate change

    Women’s participation in decision making and strong land tenure rights and governance are essential if REDD+ and other climate change mitigation and adaptation measures are to achieve climate goals and provide local benefits. This was a key message from over 80 delegates at the Africa Regional Dialogue, which was organized by EfD Ethiopia together with Rights and Resources Initiative as a pre-event to the seventh African Development Forum.


    Asian Experiences on Forest Tenure and Regulatory Reforms

    Since 2005, China has taken more bold moves in building institutional foundation for a more secure community and household tenure system improving forest governance. Facing with great challenges ahead and considering what form of grievance redress mechanisms need to be put in place to ensure that the forest institutions deliver the outcomes, EEPC, co-sponsored by Rights and Resources Initiative and State Forest Administration, PR. China, has organized the Conference on Forest Tenure and Regulatory Reforms: Experiences, Lessons and Future Steps in Asia on September 24-25, 2010.


    EfD research helps villagers save Tanzania’s forests

    The Deputy Minister for Natural Resources and Tourism, Ezekiel Maige, recently underscored the need for people living around forest reserves to be empowered with forest management skills. Researchers at Environment for Development Tanzania (EfDT), an initiative based at the Department of Economics at the University of Dar es Salaam, have identified a number of critical areas that will help both to protect Tanzania’s forests and the livelihoods of those villagers living close to the forests.


    EfD focuses on China’s topical forest policy

    ”It has been widely acknowledged that lack of appropriate mechanisms and incentives in the state forest sector, as well as lack of secure forest tenure for farmers in the collective forest sector, underpin severe poverty in forested areas and unsatisfactory performance of forest resource conservation", says Professor Jintao Xu, the coordinator of EfD in China and one of China’s most prominent experts in forestry economics.


    Black communities, gold and markets: Understanding motivations for and addressing barriers to more sustainable community-based gold mining within Colombia’s Pacific Coast

    Gold mining produces large environmental impacts with significant land-use conversion and pollution of both water and air, linked to mercury and other heavy metals. The communities engaged in gold mining are highly dependent on gold traders, in a context of violence, due to the illegality of most gold production.


    What happens when one no longer gets ecosystem services payments?

    As programs of payment for ecosystem or environmental services (PES) are rising in number, there is a need to understand effects of PES on providers’ motivations and, in turn, behaviors.  ‘Crowding in’ of pro-environmental motivations is possible − although a significant literature has expressed concern with the ‘crowding out’ of such motivations by external interventions. Yet empirical research is scarce concerning any such ‘crowding’ by PES − in either direction. Theoretical hopes and concerns are clear but, to date, the related empirical evidence is limited.


    Group decisions over the allocation of REDD payments: A natural experiment from Tanzania

    The goal of this project is to link frameworks of community or group resource management rules and of individual incentives for resource conservation in response to policy to inform and improve the success of REDD implementation in Tanzania.  The project’s direct connection to Tanzania’s policy process through collaboration with TFCG will expand the role of environmental economics capacity within that policy process and promote effective policies to address climate change through REDD.


    Building a Forest Sector Model for China: Analysis of Domestic and International Impact of Forest Policy Change

    The Objectives of this project are two folds.  One is to establish the Spatial Equilibrium Model (SEM) for China’s domestic wood product markets that links domestic and international policy changes to demand, supply and trade of forest products in China. The other is to make forecast of forest products trade (including changes in demand, supply, imports and exports) in China, triggered by potential policy changes such as the ending of the “Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP)”, implementation of the “Collective Forest Tenure Reform” and “Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP)”.  China’s policy makers and international community will be better informed with policy assessment tool like this.  


    Combining state of the art science with practitioner´s wisdom in the design of PES schemes: Lessons from the Costa Rican experience

    Our goal is to learn about the Costa Rican experience from the inside, working closely with FONAFIFO staff to understand how they have sought to improve efficiency and to explore  options for setting payment levels and targeting to increase efficiency, without missing the myriad of norms, rules, and other obstacles that program managers might face in the implementation of, for example, procurement auctions. 


    Wildlife Corridors and Communities in the East and West Usambara Mountains: Toward Integrating Social and Biological Information in Conservation Policy and Priorities

    Forest fragmentation threatens biodiversity because many species cannot survive in small, disconnected patches of habitat.  Within the biodiversity hot spot of the Eastern Arc mountains, the East and West Usambara Mountains contain many species in a highly fragmented forest.  Decades of bird population data demonstrate that the forest fragments will continue to lose bird species even


    Combining state of the art science with practitioners wisdom in the design of PES schemes: Lessons from the Costa Rican experience.

    The Costa Rican PSA Program is widely cited in discussions about REDD+, including as a reference on the costs of implementing PES and the challenges of generating additionality and livelihood co-benefits (poverty reduction).  As such, it is critical to document and extract lessons from the variation in payment levels and targeting criteria employed by Costa Rica´s National Forestry Fund (F


    Investment in data for sustainable land use and forest management in Kenya

    In 2010, EfD-Kenya embarked on a pilot study analyzing the effects of forest devolution in Kenya with a specific focus on Kakamega forest. In particular the research focuses on the formation of Community Forest Associations (CFA) that are expected to manage forests after Kenya’s recent devolution process.


    Local Institutions and Better Forests: Empirical Evidence from Household Data

    This research aims to enhance informed policy-making and sustainable management of natural resources in Ethiopia through furthering our understanding of the factors that contribute to success (better outcome in forest commons). The research intends to investigate the interplay between the user characteristics, resource characteristics, and the institutional regime as they determine better forest outcome at a more deeper level using household level dataset. 


    Effects of Deforestation on household Time Allocation among the Rural Agricultural Activities: Evidence from Central and Southern Tanzania

    Trees in forested and agricultural landscapes are particularly important because they provide high values of environmental services and biodiversity. In this proposed study we want to establish the link between deforestation, time allocation to fuel-wood collection and agriculture. We will use a non-separable (non-recursive mode) to test the participation of households in fuel-wood collection and farming activities using data from Central and Southern Tanzania. We would like to analyze how labour time, gender composition of the household, seasonality and agro-ecological differences affect household labour allocation decisions


    Determinants of Farm Households’ Agro-Forestry Technology Adoption in Ethiopia

    Empirical evidences from developing countries indicate that forest products play a significant role in rural livelihoods, particularly for the rural poor. Forests provide benefits in the form of wood, food, income, and watershed protection which enable people to secure stable and adequate food supply. However, deforestation and the resulting environmental degradation is a major problem in most African countries including Ethiopia. This is considered as one of the key factors challenging food security, community livelihood and sustainable development. Reports on the forest resources of Ethiopia are dominated by the alarming deforestation that goes on unabated and at an accelerating rate. The magnitude of deforestation and land degradation by far exceeds the conservation activities being carried out.