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Can Communication Facilitate Cooperation in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions?

International and domestic efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions require a coordinated effort from countries and individuals that differ in terms of their level of income, historical responsibility in terms of contributions to the existing stock of emissions, current intensity of energy use and costs of reducing emissions. This brief reports the results of an economic experiment that examines whether groups of individuals – who differ in terms of their individual costs of reducing emissions – can meet a collective emissions reduction target.


Environmental Policy in the Presence of an Informal Sector

We demonstrate how the presence of an untaxed informal sector can sharply lower the cost of environmental and energy tax policy. The mechanism involves substitution between formal and informal labor supply: energy or environmental taxes can improve the efficiency of the tax system by drawing activity into the formal sector.


Environmental resource collection: implications for children's schooling in Tigray, northern Ethiopia

This paper examines the adverse effect of natural resources scarcity on children's schooling and the possible gender bias of resource collection work against girls' schooling. It uses cross-sectional data on 316 children aged 7–18 years collected from 120 rural households in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. The two-stage conditional maximum likelihood estimation technique is employed to take care of endogeneity between schooling and collection intensity decisions.


Fossil Fuel and Food Tax Incidence in Ethiopia

Most studies suggest that environmental taxes are regressive, making them less attractive policy options. The general objective of this paper is to analyze and compare fossil fuel and food tax incidence in Ethiopia in different expenditure groups of households considering urban and rural parts of Ethiopia separately.


Biofuels, Economic Growth, and the External Sector in Ethiopia: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

In this study, we assess the economy-wide effects of biofuel investment in Ethiopia, with a focus on the external sector. The Government of Ethiopia has been revising its energy policy to switch from imported fossil oil to domestically produced biofuels, partly in response to climate change and partly in response to rising world oil prices, which leave oil-importing countries such as Ethiopia vulnerable to external oil price shocks.


Property rights, institutions and choice of fuelwood source in rural Ethiopia

This study examines the relationship between property rights, defined by land tenure security and the strength of local-level institutions, and household's preferences for fuelwood source. A multinomial regression model applied to survey data collected in rural Ethiopia underpins the analysis. Results from the discrete choice model indicate that active local-level institutions increase household dependency on open access forests, while land security reduces open access forest dependence.


Sweden’s CO2 tax and taxation reform experiences

A CO2 tax assures that different fossil fuels are taxed in a neutral way according to actual CO2 emissions. The Swedish experience can be summarized by increased tax levels over time and steps taken towards a more uniform national price on fossil CO2. Moreover, the CO2 tax base is only moderately elastic to price changes (particularly in the short run) when it comes to petrol and diesel implying quite stable tax revenues. On the other hand, the CO2 tax seems to have had a major impact on fuels used for heating purposes, where biofuels and other non-fossil energy sources (such as energy from waste and surplus heat from industrial processes) have significantly increased their shares.


The Distributive Effect and Food Security Implications of Biofuels Investment in Ethiopia: A CGE Analysis

In response to global opportunities and domestic challenges, Ethiopia is revising its energy policy to switch from high-cost imported fossil fuel to domestically produced biofuels. Currently, there are biofuel investment activities in different parts of the country to produce ethanol and biodiesel. However, there is no rigorous empirical study to assess impacts of such investments.


Automobile Usage and Urban Rail Transit Expansion

Using individual travel diary data collected before and after the rail transit coverage expansion in urban Beijing, this paper estimates the impact of rail accessibility improvement on the usage of rail transit, automobiles, buses, walking, and bicycling, measured as percent distance traveled by each mode in an individual trip.


Clean Fuel Saving Technology Adoption in Urban Ethiopia

The heavy dependence and inefficient utilization of biomass resources have contributed to the depletion of forest resources in Ethiopia, while the use of traditional cooking technology has also been linked to indoor air pollution and poor health. In response, the government and other institutions have pushed for the adoption of new cooking technologies, with limited success.


Trade policies for biofuels

The purpose of the present article is to consider optimal trade policies for biofuels, taking into account the potential for carbon leakage and the complex set of policies used or discussed for biofuels. First, the authors consider the case of optimal trade policies and find that the combination of an import standard and a border carbon adjustment welfare dominates using only a border carbon adjustment (BCA).


Kenya State of Environment Report 2010

EfD-Kenya actively participated in the preparation of the Kenya State of Environment (SoE) Report 2010. EfD-K Researchers Dr. Wilfred Nyangena and Geophrey Sikei were authors in the report. Dr. Nyangena was the Lead Author for Chapter 11 of the report which dealt with Policy options for action. Geophrey was a contributing author in Chapter 11 and Chapter 6 dealing with Land, Agriculture and Livestock.


Integrating Renewable Energy and Climate Change Policies: Exploring Policy Options for Africa

Lack of access to energy services is one of the main constraints to economic development in Africa. Only about 31% of the population of Sub-Saharan Africa has access to electricity, with 14% access rate in rural areas. Compounding the challenge, traditional biomass supplies up to 85% of primary energy supply, and accounts for 80% of energy consumption. With limited energy efficiency, installed generation capacity and weak institutions and energy sector governance, energy security in Africa has become a critical concern.


Fossil Fuels in Africa in the Context of a Carbon Constrained Future

Africa has considerable reserves of fossil fuels of all kinds: oil, coal and natural gas. Much of this resource is either utilised outside of Africa or some of the resource is not developed at all for use within the continent. Meanwhile, there are concerns that the future of fossil fuel use will need to take place in the context of a low carbon development pathway.


Energy, Gender and Development - What are the Linkages? Where is the Evidence?

The objective of the report is to review the literature on the links between energy access, welfare, and gender in order to provide evidence on where gender considerations in the energy sector matter and how they might be addressed. Prepared as a background document for the 2012 World Development Report on Gender Equality and Development, as well as a part of the Social Development Department’s ongoing work on gender and infrastructure, the report describes and evaluates the evidence on the links between gender and energy focusing on the following areas: increased access to woodfuel through planting of trees and forest management; improved cooking technologies; and access to electricity and motive energy.


The World Bank's Coal Electricity Headache

It has been widely reviewed, reported, and vociferously condemned that the World Bank Group (WBG) is investing heavily in coal. In South Africa, Botswana and India, the Bank has issued over $4 billion in loans for new coal-fired power plants since 2008. As a result, the Bank’s brand name is now tied to more than a billion tons of CO2 emissions over the next four to five decades.


Health Impacts of Power-Exporting Plants in Northern Mexico

In the past two decades, rapid population and economic growth on the U.S.–Mexico border has spurred a dramatic increase in electricity demand. In response, American energy multinationals have built power plants just south of the border that export most of their electricity to the United States. This development has stirred considerable controversy because these plants effectively skirt U.S. environmental air pollution regulations in a severely degraded international airshed.


Choice Experiments in Enviromental Impact Assessment: The Toro 3 Hydroelectric Project and the Recreo Verde Tourist Center in Costa Rica

Choice experiments, a stated preference valuation method, are proposed as a tool to assign monetary values to environmental externalities during the ex-ante stages of environmental impact assessment. This case study looks at the impacts of the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity’s Toro 3 hydroelectric project and its affects on the Recreo Verde tourism center in San Carlos, Costa Rica.


Renewable Energy

One of the policy goals motivating programs to increase renewable energy investment is that renewable electric generation will help reduce emissions of CO2 as well as emissions of conventional pollutants (e.g., SO2 and NOx).


Swedish CO2-Emissions 1993 - 2006 – An Application of Decomposition Analysis and Some Methodological Insights

This study undertakes a decomposition analysis to identify the drivers of carbon emissions change in the Swedish business and industry sectors 1993 - 2006. On aggregate, energy intensity decreased, but this does not seem to have been very important for reducing emissions. Rather, fuel substitution seems to have been more important, which is in line with findings from the decomposition literature on Sweden.


Biofuels production, trade and sustainable development

This book presents case studies from Pakistan, Costa Rica, South Africa and Ecuador that give a low- and middle-income country perspective on the potential for biofuel development. The focus is on the transport sector as this is the main use of liquid biofuels but co-benefit possibilities for use in domestic lighting, cooking and heating are noted.


Robust placement of sensors in dynamic water distribution systems

Designing a robust sensor network to detect accidental contaminants in water distribution systems is a challenge given the uncertain nature of the contamination events (what, how much, when, where and for how long) and the dynamic nature of water distribution systems (driven by the random consumption of consumers).


Robust placement of sensors in dynamic water distribution systems

Designing a robust sensor network to detect accidental contaminants in water distribution systems is a challenge given the uncertain nature of the contamination events (what, how much, when, where and for how long) and the dynamic nature of water distribution systems (driven by the random consumption of consumers).


Decision making under information constraints

The purposes of placing sensors in water distribution systems vary from complying with water quality regulations, monitoring accidental contamination events, and detecting intentional contamination events.


Income alone doesn’t determine adoption and choice of fuel types: Evidence from households in Tigrai and major cities in Ethiopia

It is estimated that approximately 2.5 billion people in developing countries rely on biomass fuels to meet their cooking needs. Biomass fuels are derived from living, or recently living organisms, such as wood and leaves, animal waste and other types of waste. Urban centers have long been dependent on the rural hinterlands for about 90% of their biomass fuel needs in Ethiopia. This is one of the causes of deforestation and has resulted in growing fuel scarcity and higher firewood prices.


Distributional equity of fuel tax in Costa Rica

Perhaps current prices of fossil fuels are the reflection of the hurricane's eye passing through the global markets. Before exorbitant oil prices again steal all the attention, it is important to analyze our policies on public and private transport management in general. And in particular fuel tax policies, which is here discussed by Francisco Alpizar, Rebecca Osakwe and Allen Blackman.