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Strategic alliances in Kenyan smallholder farming

Implementing and complying with standards and certification often increases costs for supply chain actors. These increased costs are caused by upgrading production, logistics and marketing needed to achieve compliance, and can lead to the exclusion of actors from the supply chain.


Tenure security and ecosystem service provisioning in Kenya.

The chapter is a case study of tenure security and ecosystem service provisioning in Kenya. It provides support to a strong positive link between tenure security and investment in soil and water conservation. Evidence from 18 villages in rural Kenya suggests that household income tends to increase as a result of land conservation investments. This is particularly the case when land is registered in the name of the household head rather than another member of the extended family.


A Non-Parametric Data Envelopment Analysis Approach for Improving Energy Efficiency of Grape Production

Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops with approximately 67.5 million tonnes produced each year and energy is an important element in modern grape productions as it heavily depends on fossil and other energy resources. Efficient use of these energies is a necessary step toward reducing environmental hazards, preventing destruction of natural resources and ensuring agricultural sustainability. Hence, identifying excessive use of energy as well as reducing energy resources is the main focus of this paper to optimize energy consumption in grape production.


Estimating the potential economic benefits of adopting Bt cotton in selected COMESA countries

Cotton farmers in the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) face pest challenges, the most destructive of which is the African bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). Reduction in these pest infestations can increase yields and improve welfare of cotton producers, consumers, and innovators. Currently, the control of bollworms in this region is done through application pesticides, which is a costly exercise in terms of cost of pesticides, spray equipment, and labor.


Are Small-Scale Irrigators Water Use Efficient? Evidence from Lake Naivasha Basin, Kenya

With increasing water scarcity and competing uses and users, water use efficiency is becoming increasingly important in many parts of developing countries. The lake Naivasha basin has an array of different water users and uses ranging from large scale export market agriculture, urban domestic water users to small holder farmers. The small scale farmers are located in the upper catchment areas and form the bulk of the users in terms of area and population. This study used farm household data to explore the overall technical efficiency, irrigation water use efficiency and establish the factors influencing water use efficiency among small scale farmers in the Lake Naivasha basin in Kenya.


EfD Kenya Center Report 2012/13

This report presents EfD Kenya, its members and work during 2012/13. For a free hardcopy, please send an email to:


Forest-poverty nexus: Exploring the contribution of forests to rural livelihoods in Kenya

This paper explores the contribution of forests to the livelihoods of local communities in Kenya. The paper uses survey data to explore resource extraction and the economic reliance of households on forests. The results suggest that both rich and poor households depend on forests, and that membership in forest user groups, and therefore participation in forest activities, may be based on a household's monetary rather than asset income. The results imply that forests support the living standards of the poor through the diversification of household income sources.


EfD Kenya Report 2011/12

This report presents EfD Kenya, its members and work during 2011/12. For a free hardcopy, please send an email to:


Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas

The rapid disruption of tropical forests probably imperils global biodiversity more than any other contemporary phenomenon. With deforestation advancing quickly, protected areas are increasingly becoming final refuges for threatened species and natural ecosystem processes.


Kenya State of Environment Report 2010

EfD-Kenya actively participated in the preparation of the Kenya State of Environment (SoE) Report 2010. EfD-K Researchers Dr. Wilfred Nyangena and Geophrey Sikei were authors in the report. Dr. Nyangena was the Lead Author for Chapter 11 of the report which dealt with Policy options for action. Geophrey was a contributing author in Chapter 11 and Chapter 6 dealing with Land, Agriculture and Livestock.


Can Strategic Environmental and Social Assessment of REDD+ Improve Forest Governance?

The Forest Carbon Partnership Facility has recently proposed the application of strategic environmental social assessment (SESA) for incorporating environmental and social considerations in the preparation of REDD+ initiatives. This paper discusses the potential contribution of SESA to REDD+ initiatives drawing on experiences from earlier attempts to large scale forestry sector reforms and a recent World Bank pilot program on strategic environmental assessment. The paper suggests that SESA can be a useful approach for strengthening institutions and governance needed for managing diverse environmental and social impacts related to REDD+.


EfD Kenya Report 2010

This report presents EfD Kenya, its members and work during 2010. For a free hardcopy, please send an email to:


Agricultural Investment and Productivity - Building Sustainability in East Africa

Agricultural Investment and Productivity provides a deep and systematic look at the opportunities for and constraints to investments in sustainable agriculture in East Africa, offering important insights into what works and how to analyze agricultural investments in one of the poorest regions of the world. The book critically examines the reasons behind East Africa's stagnant agricultural productivity over the past forty-five years, using the primary lens of investments in fertilizers, seeds, and sustainable land management technologies, These investments have a tremendous impact on production volume, ultimately affecting the income of millions of families throughout the region.


The Bioeconomics of Conservation Agriculture and Soil Carbon Sequestration in Developing Countries

Improving soil carbon through conservation agriculture in developing countries may generate some private benefits to farmers, as well as sequester carbon emissions, which is a positive externality to society. Leaving crop residue on the farm has become an important option in conservation agriculture practice. However, in developing countries, using crop residue for conservation agriculture has the opportunity cost of feed for livestock.


Assessing opportunity costs of conservation: Ingredients for protected area management in the Kakamega Forest, Western Kenya

The Kakamega Forest is the only remaining tropical rainforest fragment in Western Kenya and hosts large numbers of endemic animal and plant species. Protected areas were established decades ago in order to preserve the forest's unique biodiversity from being converted into agricultural land by the regions large number of small-scale farmers. Nonetheless, recent research shows that degradation continues at alarming rates.


Understanding Local Communities’ Perceptions of Existing Forest Management Regimes of a Kenyan Rainforest

Current conservation debates place high emphasis on the need to integrate the views and needs of local communities in conservation processes. Understanding local community perceptions of forest management and the factors that influence these perceptions is important for designing management policies that are sensitive to their needs. However, more often than not local communities’ perceptions do not receive as much attention as they deserve.


Adaptation to Climate Change Can Improve Supply of Body Energy Needs and Reduce Malnutrition

Researchers at EfD-Kenya have found new evidence that nutritional poverty is linked with climate change and variability. ‘In Kenya and other African countries, a majority of farmers depend on rainfall that is increasingly unpredictable,’ said Dr Richard Mulwa, Senior Research Associate at EfD-Kenya and one of the lead investigators in the study. ‘Also, increasing temperature reduces food production. Therefore, it is critical for these farmers to change their farming practices in response to climate change’.  


Climate change is affecting food security

A recent study in Kenya shows that climate change and variability will increase food insecurity and that different food crops will respond differently to climate change variables. The study also highlights the different factors influencing food insecurity in a changing climate. This is important information for farmers as well as the government.