The Environment for Development initiative started in 2007 and this is the report for the first three-year period.
In this paper, the relation between poverty indicators and demographic variables is explored using household survey data from two regions in Northern Tanzania (the Lake Victoria area).
This paper relates the key findings of the optimal economic enforcement literature to practical issues of enforcing forest and wildlife management access restrictions in developing countries. Our experiences, particularly from Tanzania and eastern India, provide detail of the key pragmatic issues facing those responsible for protecting natural resources.
Willingness to pay for garbage collection services for University of Dar es salaam residential areas has been assessed in this study using Contingent Valuation Method (CVM).
An Analysis of Alternative Weighting System on the National Price Index in Tanzania: The Implication to Poverty Analysis
This paper set out to calculate and compare “plutocratic” inflation to “democratic” inflation in Tanzania using monthly price data from 2003 to 2006 and the 2000/2001 National Household Survey data with the view to assess their impact on the poor.
Economic Valuation of Consumptive Non-Timber Forest Products Evidence from Rombo District (using Contingent Valuation Method)
The dissertation describes the use of contingent valuation to estimate economic value of consumptive Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs), availability, types and uses among rural residents adjacent to half mile strip in Rombo district
Many resource users are not involved in formulating and enforcement of resource management regulations in developing countries and do not generally accept such rules. Enforcement officers who have social ties to resource users may encounter social disapproval if they enforce regulations zealously, so they may accept bribes to avoid it. The authors present a neoclassical utility maximization framework that characterizes this situation, derive results for situations where officers are passively and actively involved in the bribery, and make some interesting policy recommendations.
Many resource users are not involved in formulating and enforcement of resource management regulations in developing countries and do not generally accept such rules.
Environment for Development Tanzania held a policy workshop in Dar es Salaam to discuss with key stakeholders the findings from their recently completed research project that addresses the determinants of successful participatory forest management in Tanzania.
In forests managed by participatory management in Tanzania, “volunteer” patrollers often enforce access restrictions, receiving a share of collected fine revenue as incentive. The authors explore how shared revenue and alternative sources of forest products for villagers determine the patrollers’ enforcement effort and decision to take bribes rather than report violators.
This is an empirical exploration of villagers’ dependence on non-timber forest products in the Morogoro region in Tanzania, the decision rules used concerning where and how much they collect, how collection changes with forest degradation, and the implications of more restrictive access from participatory forest management. Villagers’ responses to increased degradation vary by forest product; some collection tends to be displaced to other forests, less of the resources are collected, and collection times increase considerably.
This paper relates principle findings in the optimal economic enforcement literature to practical issues of enforcing and managing forest and wildlife access restrictions in developing countries.
The authors explore the impact of participatory forest management (PFM) in Tanzania that excludes villagers from traditional access to forests to collect non-timber forest products (NTFPs).
Following the 1998 National Forest Policy and Forest Act of 2002, participatory forest management (PFM) is being introduced in Tanzania. PFM has two key objectives: to reduce forest degradation thereby increasing ecosystem services, and to improve the livelihoods of local villagers.
On Wednesday 10th December 2008, Environment for Development Tanzania held a policy workshop in Dar es Salaam to discuss with key stakeholders the findings from their recently completed research project that addresses the determinants of successful participatory forest management in Tanzania.
This paper offers a baseline data for future assessment of the extent to which Marine Parks improve households’ welfare and reduce poverty in the Tanzanian Coastal area. Household Budget Survey
This analysis of the fishers’ compliance with regulations in Lake Victoria, Tanzania, gives support to the traditional economics-of-crime model and shows that the extension of the basic deterrence model can lead to a richer model with substantially higher explanatory power.
This paper studies technical efficiency and skipper skill (and explores potential proxies), using Tanzanian fishery data for the two major species, Nile perch and dagaa. The relative level of efficiency is high in both fisheries, and several observable variables linked to skipper skill significantly explain the efficiency level. However, given the rapidly depleting fish stocks in Lake Victoria, increased efficiency at the aggregate level is only possible if fishing effort is limited.
Using an experimental approach, we investigate the risk preferences of artisanal fishermen in Tanzania waters of Lake Victoria. The experiment concerns pairwise comparisons of hypothetical fishing trips that vary in expected mean and spread of the net revenue.
This study stakes on the debate on whether or not increased off-farm employment compromises the adoption and the intensity of adopting some labor intensive soil conserving technologies.
Can risk aversion towards fertilizers explain part of non adoption puzzle for hybrid maize? Empirical evidence from Malawi
This study investigates the linkage between attitudes towards risk and adoption.
Much of Tanzania’s economic growth is dependent on the natural ecosystems that allow the harvesting of resources such as water, timber, and fish from the environment. However, society often regards these resources as infinite and free, which can lead to their over exploitation, resulting in the ecosystems becoming degraded and unhealthy.
A government policy which encourages subsidies of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) stoves, or provides for households to buy these with credit, could reduce deforestation in Tanzania by nearly a half. This is according to research done by the Environment for Development centre (EfD) at the University of Dar es Salaam in 2016.
To make hydroelectric power work better in rural communities, EfD Tanzania researchers decided to have in-depth contact with the grassroots through community-based and civil society organizations. Findings from a study on management of the hydropower plants in the southern highlands region show that rural electrification has proven to boost farmers’ earnings: Electric power increases the processing and value addition of agricultural products, which helps farmers fetch premium market prices.
Charcoal is the most commonly used cooking fuel for urban households in Tanzania. But charcoal use has complex implications for climate change, poverty, and health.
In a brief interview with UNU-Wider Wisdom Akpalu, Associate Professor of Economics at SUNY-Farmingdale, NY, shares his view on the effectiveness of development knowledge aid and the impact of the “Gothenburg mafia” on Africa. A maybe misleading expression which relates to Wisdom himself and his former PhD colleagues who studied at the Environmental Economics Unit of the Economics Department at Gothenburg University.
A child was killed by bees, and the fish did not survive. These were two sad outcomes of the investments in beehives and fishponds as alternative income sources for fishermen in marine protected areas in Tanzania.
“If we aren’t careful, a system like REDD may lead to a revision of colonialism. The crucial problem is that we in Tanzania don´t have the required facts about our own forests,” said Professor Claude Mung'ong'o of University of Dar es Salaam's Institute of Resource Assessment to the audience of policy makers and researchers attending the Policy Day of the fifth EfD Annual Meeting 2011.
When President Jakaya Kikwete recently signed Tanzania´s new National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty, it was a milestone to celebrate for EfD Research Fellow John Kedi Mduma. Since 2007 he has been involved in monitoring and reviewing the national strategy. Now he is in the middle of designing the Implementation Guide for the forward-looking strategy for 2011-2015, known as MKUKUTA II in Kiswahili.