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A spatial–temporal analysis of the impact of access restrictions on forest landscapes and household welfare in Tanzania

This paper explores the impact of the re-introduction of access restrictions to forests in Tanzania, through participatory forest management (PFM), that have excluded villagers from forests to which they have traditionally, albeit illegally, had access to collect non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Motivated by our fieldwork, and using a spatial–temporal model, we focus on the paths of forest degradation and regeneration and villagers' utility before and after an access restriction is introduced.


A study on sustainable exploitation of marine finfish resources in Tanzania, Case study of Mafia

Mafia island and Tanzania fishery ground is rich in variety of vertebrates and fish stock. Because of diversity and variety of these marine resources it is experiencing an increase in fishing effort particularly fishermen, fishing vessel and various fishing gear. This resulted from increase in indigenous and migrant’s fishermen and forces raise complexity in management. To reduce over exploitation burden the maximum level of effort enabling sustainable exploitation has to be determined to support measures like introduction of protected marine areas, restricting destructive gears and beach management unit already taken.


Poverty-Environment Policy Analysis

Poverty and environment has an important relationship especially for developing countries like Tanzania. These two areas do have a complementary relationship which may be positive or negative depending on how they are conceptualized and dealt with. The poor under desperation may cause environmental degradation while a degraded environment in turn could be a source of increased poverty through many avenues including the disappearance or decline in the goods and services which the environment provides to our everyday needs.


Regulatory Compliance in Lake Victoria Fisheries

This analysis of the fishers’ compliance with regulations in Lake Victoria, Tanzania, gives support to the traditional economics-of-crime model and shows that the extension of the basic deterrence model can lead to a richer model with substantially higher explanatory power.



The build-up of Tanzania’s experience, particularly during the preparation and implementation of the National Strategy for Growth and Poverty Reduction (NSPR) (MKUKUTA I) shows the steps, with technical and financial support of Development Partners, that were taken to integrate environment and natural resources issues were more visible at the central government level (the championing and coordinating role of the Office of the Vice President) and some of the natural resources sector Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs).


Protecting Developing Countries' Forests: Enforcement in Theory and Practice

This paper relates the key findings of the optimal economic enforcement literature to practical issues of enforcing forest and wildlife management access restrictions in developing countries. Our experiences, particularly from Tanzania and eastern India, provide detail of the key pragmatic issues facing those responsible for protecting natural resources.


Enforcement of Exogenous Environmental Regulations, Social Disapproval, and Bribery

Many resource users are not involved in formulating and enforcement of resource management regulations in developing countries and do not generally accept such rules. Enforcement officers who have social ties to resource users may encounter social disapproval if they enforce regulations zealously, so they may accept bribes to avoid it. The authors present a neoclassical utility maximization framework that characterizes this situation, derive results for situations where officers are passively and actively involved in the bribery, and make some interesting policy recommendations.


To Bribe or Not to Bribe: Incentives to Protect Tanzania´s Forest

In forests managed by participatory management in Tanzania, “volunteer” patrollers often enforce access restrictions, receiving a share of collected fine revenue as incentive. The authors explore how shared revenue and alternative sources of forest products for villagers determine the patrollers’ enforcement effort and decision to take bribes rather than report violators.


Changing Access to Forest Resources in Tanzania

This is an empirical exploration of villagers’ dependence on non-timber forest products in the Morogoro region in Tanzania, the decision rules used concerning where and how much they collect, how collection changes with forest degradation, and the implications of more restrictive access from participatory forest management. Villagers’ responses to increased degradation vary by forest product; some collection tends to be displaced to other forests, less of the resources are collected, and collection times increase considerably.


Regulatory Compliance in Lake Victoria Fisheries

This analysis of the fishers’ compliance with regulations in Lake Victoria, Tanzania, gives support to the traditional economics-of-crime model and shows that the extension of the basic deterrence model can lead to a richer model with substantially higher explanatory power.


Technical Efficiency and the Role of Skipper Skill in Artisanal Lake Victoria Fisheries

This paper studies technical efficiency and skipper skill (and explores potential proxies), using Tanzanian fishery data for the two major species, Nile perch and dagaa. The relative level of efficiency is high in both fisheries, and several observable variables linked to skipper skill significantly explain the efficiency level. However, given the rapidly depleting fish stocks in Lake Victoria, increased efficiency at the aggregate level is only possible if fishing effort is limited.


Small-scale Fishermen and Risk Preferences

Using an experimental approach, we investigate the risk preferences of artisanal fishermen in Tanzania waters of Lake Victoria. The experiment concerns pairwise comparisons of hypothetical fishing trips that vary in expected mean and spread of the net revenue.


Tanzania: Environmental loss: the cost to Tanzania’s economy (2018)

Much of Tanzania’s economic growth is dependent on the natural ecosystems that allow the harvesting of resources such as water, timber, and fish from the environment. However, society often regards these resources as infinite and free, which can lead to their over exploitation, resulting in the ecosystems becoming degraded and unhealthy.


Cleaner stoves can save Tanzania’s forests

A government policy which encourages subsidies of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) stoves, or provides for households to buy these with credit, could reduce deforestation in Tanzania by nearly a half. This is according to research done by the Environment for Development centre (EfD) at the University of Dar es Salaam in 2016. 


Research on energy use for poverty reduction reaches grassroots

To make hydroelectric power work better in rural communities, EfD Tanzania researchers decided to have in-depth contact with the grassroots through community-based and civil society organizations. Findings from a study on management of the hydropower plants in the southern highlands region show that rural electrification has proven to boost farmers’ earnings: Electric power increases the processing and value addition of agricultural products, which helps farmers fetch premium market prices.


EfD Knowledge Aid

In a brief interview with UNU-Wider Wisdom Akpalu, Associate Professor of Economics at SUNY-Farmingdale, NY, shares his view on the effectiveness of development knowledge aid and the impact of the “Gothenburg mafia” on Africa. A maybe misleading expression which relates to Wisdom himself and his former PhD colleagues who studied at the Environmental Economics Unit of the Economics Department at Gothenburg University.


REDD may lead to the revival of colonialism

“If we aren’t careful, a system like REDD may lead to a revision of colonialism. The crucial problem is that we in Tanzania don´t have the required facts about our own forests,” said Professor Claude Mung'ong'o of University of Dar es Salaam's Institute of Resource Assessment to the audience of policy makers and researchers attending the Policy Day of the fifth EfD Annual Meeting 2011.


Sustainable growth is key in Tanzania´s MKUKUTA 2011-2015

When President Jakaya Kikwete recently signed Tanzania´s new National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty, it was a milestone to celebrate for EfD Research Fellow John Kedi Mduma. Since 2007 he has been involved in monitoring and reviewing the national strategy. Now he is in the middle of designing the Implementation Guide for the forward-looking strategy for 2011-2015, known as MKUKUTA II in Kiswahili.