Skip to main content



Distributional Differences in Upper Tail Observation of Per capital Household Expenditure in Tanzania in 2001 and 2007

Recent economic growth in Tanzania has not been matched by a corresponding reduction in poverty when compared with similar episode of growth in countries such as Uganda, Ghana, etc. This has raised heated debate, whereby some analysts argue that problem lies on the GDP is compiled, and other on the validity of Household Budget Survey (HBS) data. This paper contributes to that debate by  analyzing the distribution of upper tail observation using he Generalized Pareto Distributions show that HBS 2007 is characterized by extreme values of per capita expenditure when compares to 2001.


Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, or REDD, is a mechanism for providing financial rewards to countries that reduce carbon emissions caused by the loss and degradation of their forests. In concept, REDD resembles other Payment for Environmental Services (PES) programs. However, REDD emphasizes a reduction in deforestation and degradation rates from expected levels, also known as avoided deforestation and degradation.


Point Density Estimation of Changes in Income Polarization in Tanzania, 1992−2001

Data from two Household Budget Surveys in 1991-1992 and 2000-2001 in Tanzania indicate that there is no change in inequality between the two surveys. In spite of this finding, and impressive macroeconomic gains, there is growing discontent throughout the country because of the belief that the change from socialist to market policies has worsened income inequality.


The Supply of Inorganic Fertilizers to Smallholder Farmers in Tanzania, Evidence for Fertilizer Policy Development

Inorganic fertilizer is one of a handful of agricultural technologies that have immense potential for raising the productivity of poor smallholders, enabling them to increase income, accumulate assets, and set themselves economically on a pathway out of poverty. This paper presents the results of a broad study of fertilizer supply to smallholder farmers in Tanzania that was done to assess whether the taxes (explicit or implicit) that are applied at various points along the fertilizer importation and marketing chain or the absence of key public goods and services reduces the access that smallholder farmers have to fertilizer. The study involved a review of the literature of fertilizer supply, demand, and use; interviews with key participants in fertilizer importation and marketing in Tanzania; and two surveys—one with farmers and the other with input suppliers—in three farming areas where more fertilizer is used than is the norm for the country as a whole


Success factors for pairing conservation with enhanced forest and fish-based livelihoods

In settings in which people rely directly on either forest or marine resources, protecting both the natural resources and livelihoods is challenging. Findings from Tanzania suggest that, where budgets are limited, key factors for a successful combination of livelihood and conservation policies include the strategic location of livelihood projects that target those most dependent on the protected resource rather than those most likely to cooperate with access restrictions.


Samuelson and 21st Century Tropical Forest Economics

In this paper, a commentary on Samuelson’s 1976 classic, “The Economics of Forestry in an Evolving Society”, Robinson and Albers address the relevance of Samuelson’s paper to tropical forests. Samuelson’s paper focuses on rich country settings where market and governance institutions function well and where forests are managed for timber through rotations.


Insiders, Outsiders, and the Role of Local Enforcement in Forest Management: An Example from Tanzania

Typically both local villagers (“insiders”) and non-locals (“outsiders”) extract products from protected forests even though the activities are illegal. Our paper suggests that, depending on the relative ecological damage caused by each group, budget-constrained forest managers may be able to reduce total forest degradation by legalizing “insider” extraction in return for local villagers involvement in enforcement activities.


Climate Change and Total Factor Productivity in the Tanzanian Economy

The paper analyses the economic impacts of climate change-induced adjustments on the performance of the Tanzanian economy, using a country-wide CGE model. The general equilibrium framework enables comparison of the effects of climate change to the overall growth of the economy, as responsiveness to shocks is likely to depend on the macroeconomic structure of the economy.


The Role of Incentives for Sustainable Implementation of Marine Protected Areas: An Example from Tanzania

Although Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) provide an increasingly popular policy tool for protecting marine stocks and biodiversity, they pose high costs for small-scale fisherfolk who have few alternative livelihood options in poor countries. MPAs often address this burden on local households by providing some benefits to compensate locals and/or induce compliance with restrictions.


The Role of Incentives for Sustainable Implementation of Marine Protected Areas

Although Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) provide an increasingly popular policy tool for protecting marine stocks and biodiversity, they pose high costs for small-scale fisherfolk who have few alternative livelihood options in poor countries. MPAs often address this burden on local households by providing some benefits to compensate locals and/or induce compliance with restrictions....


A spatial–temporal analysis of the impact of access restrictions on forest landscapes and household welfare in Tanzania

This paper explores the impact of the re-introduction of access restrictions to forests in Tanzania, through participatory forest management (PFM), that have excluded villagers from forests to which they have traditionally, albeit illegally, had access to collect non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Motivated by our fieldwork, and using a spatial–temporal model, we focus on the paths of forest degradation and regeneration and villagers' utility before and after an access restriction is introduced.


A study on sustainable exploitation of marine finfish resources in Tanzania, Case study of Mafia

Mafia island and Tanzania fishery ground is rich in variety of vertebrates and fish stock. Because of diversity and variety of these marine resources it is experiencing an increase in fishing effort particularly fishermen, fishing vessel and various fishing gear. This resulted from increase in indigenous and migrant’s fishermen and forces raise complexity in management. To reduce over exploitation burden the maximum level of effort enabling sustainable exploitation has to be determined to support measures like introduction of protected marine areas, restricting destructive gears and beach management unit already taken.


Poverty-Environment Policy Analysis

Poverty and environment has an important relationship especially for developing countries like Tanzania. These two areas do have a complementary relationship which may be positive or negative depending on how they are conceptualized and dealt with. The poor under desperation may cause environmental degradation while a degraded environment in turn could be a source of increased poverty through many avenues including the disappearance or decline in the goods and services which the environment provides to our everyday needs.


Regulatory Compliance in Lake Victoria Fisheries

This analysis of the fishers’ compliance with regulations in Lake Victoria, Tanzania, gives support to the traditional economics-of-crime model and shows that the extension of the basic deterrence model can lead to a richer model with substantially higher explanatory power.



The build-up of Tanzania’s experience, particularly during the preparation and implementation of the National Strategy for Growth and Poverty Reduction (NSPR) (MKUKUTA I) shows the steps, with technical and financial support of Development Partners, that were taken to integrate environment and natural resources issues were more visible at the central government level (the championing and coordinating role of the Office of the Vice President) and some of the natural resources sector Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs).


Protecting Developing Countries' Forests: Enforcement in Theory and Practice

This paper relates the key findings of the optimal economic enforcement literature to practical issues of enforcing forest and wildlife management access restrictions in developing countries. Our experiences, particularly from Tanzania and eastern India, provide detail of the key pragmatic issues facing those responsible for protecting natural resources.


Enforcement of Exogenous Environmental Regulations, Social Disapproval, and Bribery

Many resource users are not involved in formulating and enforcement of resource management regulations in developing countries and do not generally accept such rules. Enforcement officers who have social ties to resource users may encounter social disapproval if they enforce regulations zealously, so they may accept bribes to avoid it. The authors present a neoclassical utility maximization framework that characterizes this situation, derive results for situations where officers are passively and actively involved in the bribery, and make some interesting policy recommendations.