The idea for this book first originated in 2012 when writing a paper for a workshop for the University of Dar es Salaam Mwalimu Nyerere Chair on Development. More recently, it has been driven by the fact that, despite making some progress, the country continues to struggle in the seemingly never-ending cycle of poverty, disease, aid dependency, the dearth of infrastructure and corruption. These are challenges that policy-makers and the government grapple with day in day out.
Central to this special issue is the notion that the methods and conceptual tools of comparative politics can improve our understanding of global climate change politics. Building on recent advancements in the field of comparative environmental politics, the special issues offers a more comprehensive treatment of climate change politics in developed countries, emerging economies and least developed countries.
Assessing Gender Inequality in Food Security amongst Small-holder Farm Households in urban and rural South Africa
With the ongoing changes in climate, household food insecurity is likely to be more widespread in most small-holder and subsistence farm households in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the existence and extent of gendered household food security—or lack thereof—remains unclear.
Read about EfD research applied around the developing world.
An analysis of factors affecting household willingness to participate in the REDD+ programme in Tanzania
Tanzania has high rates of deforestation and forest degradation. Reducing deforestation and forest degradation is an important strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, asking households to reduce deforestation means asking them to sacrifice direct benefits from forests, such as energy resources. The REDD+ programme provides a way to compensate households. This study estimates households’ willingness to accept forest-use restrictions governing participation in the REDD+ programme and its determinants.
What Determines Gender Inequality in Household Food Security in Kenya? Application of Exogenous Switching Treatment Regression
Abstract: This paper explores the link between the gender of a household head and food security in rural Kenya. The results show that the food security gap between male-headed households (MHHs) and female-headed households (FHHs) is explained by their differences in observable and unobservable characteristics. FHHs’ food security status would have been higher than it is now if the returns (coefficients) on their observed characteristics had been the same as the returns on the MHHs’ characteristics.
Climate change and South Africa’s commercial farms: an assessment of impacts on specialised horticulture, crop, livestock and mixed farming systems
South Africa, a main food exporter in SADC, is characterised by a dual agricultural economy consisting of a well-developed commercial sector and smallholder, often subsistence, farming. Using the Ricardian cross-sectional framework, we examine the impact of climate change on a nationwide sample of crop, horticulture, livestock and mixed commercial farming systems.
Allocating Community-Level Payments for Ecosystem Services: Initial Experiences from a REDD Pilot in Tanzania
Payments for ecosystem services (PES) typically reward landowners for managing their land to provide ecosystem services that would not otherwise be provided. REDD— Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation—is a form of PES aimed at decreasing carbon emissions from forest conversion and extraction in lower-income countries. A key challenge for REDD occurs when it is implemented at the community rather than the individual landowner level.
REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) is a form of payment for ecosystem services (a voluntary transaction in which a buyer makes a payment to a seller conditional on the ecosystem providing some service, such as carbon storage) aimed at decreasing carbon emissions from conversion of forest to farm land and unsustainable harvesting of forest resources in lower-income countries. Community-based forest management (CBFM) can create the appropriate incentives and behavioural change required by REDD+ when the recipients of the REDD+ funds are also the key causes of that forest change.
Improving welfare through climate-friendly agriculture: The case of the System of Rice Intensification
We use rich survey data to investigate the economic impact of a climate-friendly rice farming method known as the system of rice intensification (SRI) on the welfare of rain-dependent smallholder farmers in Africa. SRI reduces water consumption by half, which makes it a promising farming system in the adaptation to climate change in moisture-constrained areas, and it does not require flooding of rice fields, resulting in reduced methane emissions.
Maize is a strategic commodity for improving food security and alleviating poverty in Tanzania, but its productivity remains low. The importance of improved maize varieties (IMVs) in increasing productivity is documented in existing literature. Previous adoption studies in Tanzania did not examine the factors that influence the speed/timing of adoption. This study examines the determinants of the speed of adoption of IMVs using a duration model and recently collected plot- and household-level data in rural Tanzania.
Multiple and Concurrent Sex Partnerships and Social Norms: Young Adults’ Sexual Relationships in the Metropolitan Communities of Cape Town, South Africa
Even though antiretroviral treatment is becoming more efficient and available, new HIV infections still occur, and this is particularly evident in the sub-Saharan Africa region. Heterosexual intercourse is still the main mode of HIV transmission in the region, and multiple and concurrent sex partners are arguably crucial for the spread of the epidemic.
Investigating the sensitivity of household food security to agriculture-related shocks and the implication of social and natural capital
This paper examines the impact of agriculture-related shocks on consumption patterns of rural farming households using 3 years of data from South Africa. We make two key observations.
Marine Protected Areas in Artisanal Fisheries: A Spatial Bio-economic Model Based on Observations in Costa Rica and Tanzania
In many lower-income countries, the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) involves significant opportunity costs for artisanal fishers, reflected in changes in how they allocate their labor in response to the MPA. The resource economics literature rarely addresses such labor allocation decisions of artisanal fishers and how, in turn, these contribute to the impact of MPAs on fish stocks, yield, and income.
Both Tanzania’s and Costa Rica’s beaches provide important nesting sites for endangered sea turtles. Poaching of eggs by local people for food or for sale presents a major threat to these species, as do other predators. This harvesting of eggs in MPAs, and throughout Costa Rica, remains illegal, but enforcement on long beaches proves difficult. Both countries have active organizations that attempt to reduce this poaching, sometimes involving moving nests.
Opening the Black Box of Carbon Finance “Additionality”: The Political Economy of Carbon Finance Effectiveness across Tanzania, Uganda, and Moldova
This paper identifies conditions under which the Clean Development Mechanism and other carbon finance projects effectively generate genuine, “additional” carbon credits—relying on a systematic empirical investigation of afforestation/reforestation and bioenergy carbon finance projects across Tanzania, Uganda, and Moldova. At low global carbon prices, additionality was related to the interests of project developers and their resulting capacities and motivations for project implementation.
The EfD Report 2014/15 gives you an excellent overview of the EfD centres´ achievements during 2014 and ongoing work during 2015. Ranging from interesting policy stories on how economic research is put to use around the world to collaborative research programs, a wide range of publications, and our academic capacity building program.
In Sub-Saharan Africa, climate change is set to hit the agricultural sector the most severely and cause suffering, particularly for smallholder farmers. To cushion themselves against potential welfare losses, smallholder farmers need to recognize the changes already taking place in their climate and undertake appropriate investments in adaptation. This study investigates whether these smallholder farmers in Tanzania recognize climate change and, consequently, adapt to it in their agricultural activities.
We examine the welfare implications of the Tanzanian ﬁsheries boom resulting from Lake Victoria Nile perch exports during 1993–2008. In the literature, there are two opposing views on the effect of ﬁsh trade: some argue that ﬁsh trade can act as an engine of growth, while others contend that trade in ﬁsh negatively affects food security, local economies and incomes of the poor.
A comparative analysis of technical efficiency of smallholder tobacco and maize farmers in Tabora, Tanzania
The study presented here considers the relative efficiency of planting tobacco and maize in the tobacco-producing Tabora region of Tanzania. The study used a 2013 survey that was conducted among smallholder farmers in the Tabora region. The aim was to investigate whether farmers are better off planting tobacco or maize. The paper briefly reviews the importance of agriculture in general and tobacco planting in particular on the Tanzanian economy. The paper then reviews the methodology used in the analysis, The Frontier Production Function.
Ex-post evaluation of the additionality of Clean Development Mechanism Afforestation projects in Tanzania, Uganda and Moldova
This study presents findings from a systematic comparative research effort to investigate the additionality claims of CDM afforestation projects in Tanzania, Uganda and Moldova. Using what we refer to as an ex-post comparative baseline approach that accounts for how project financing and background economic conditions evolve over a CDM project’s implementation and crediting periods, we demonstrate that the projects in Uganda and Moldova are very likely to be fully additional while only approximately one-quarter of carbon credits resulting from the Tanzania project are genuine.
Central to this working paper is the notion that the concepts and methods of comparative politics can shine light on political factors important for catalysing positive change on the governance climate change adaptation and food security in the developing world.
Land Acquisitions in Tanzania: Strong Sustainability, Weak Sustainability and the Importance of Comparative Methods
This paper distinguished different analytical approaches to the evaluation of the sustainability of large-scale land acquisitions—at both the conceptual and methodological levels. First, at the conceptual level, evaluation of the sustainability of land acquisitions depends on what definition of sustainability is adopted—strong or weak sustainability. Second, a lack of comparative empirical methods in many studies has limited the identification of causal factors affecting sustainability.
Neoclassical realism and international climate change politics: moral imperative and political constraint in international climate finance
In this article, I present a neoclassical realist theory of climate change politics that challenges the idea that cooperation on climate change is compelled alone by shared norms and interests emanating from the international level and questions if instead material factors also play a significant constraining role.
Understanding the adoption of a portfolio of sustainable intensification practices in eastern and southern Africa
This paper explores smallholder farmers’ adoption decisions of multiple sustainable intensification practices (SIPs) in eastern and southern Africa. The authors develop a multivariate probit model using plot-level data gathered from maize–legume farming systems in Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, and Tanzania.
Using cross sectional data obtained from the first wave of the National Panel Survey Data; this study attempts to examine empirically two issues; first the influence of land tenure reforms on sustainability of land management; second, the influence of land tenure on land investment (trees plantation).
Analysis of adaptation to climate variability and change in Uganda: A Gender and household welfare perspective
The study establishes the extent to which climate change has occurred in Uganda, analyses choices of adaptation strategies to climate change induced shocks and factors determining the choices made at the household level by gender of the decision maker of the household, and lastly estimates the impact of adaptation strategies employed to covariate shocks on household welfare.
Technical Efficiency in Agriculture and its Implication on Forest Conservation; The Case study of Kilosa District (Morogoro)
Majority of the households living adjacent to the forest depend primarily on agriculture and secondarily on forest resources. For these households, agriculture plays a key role, for subsistence needs and as the source of income, forest on the other hand is the major source of energy, building materials and income as well.
Forest Tenure Reform in Asia and Africa: Local Control for Improved Livelihoods, Forest Management, and Carbon Sequestration
Forest tenure reforms are occurring in many developing countries around the world. These reforms typically include devolution of forest lands to local people and communities, which has attracted a great deal of attention and interest. While the nature and level of devolution vary by country, all have potentially important implications for resource allocation, local ecosystem services, livelihoods and climate change.
Insiders, outsiders, and the role of local enforcement in forest management: An example from Tanzania
In low-income countries, both nearby local villagers, “insiders”, and non-locals, “outsiders”, extract products from protected forests even though their actions are illegal.
The role of incentives for sustainable implementation of marine protected areas: an example from Tanzania
Although Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are an increasingly popular policy tool for protecting marine stocks and biodiversity, they pose high costs for small-scale fisherfolk in poor countries.
Determinants of delay in care seeking among children under five with fever in Dodoma region, central Tanzania: a cross-sectional study
Early diagnosis and timely treatment of malaria is recognized as a fundamental element to the control of the disease. Although access to health services in Tanzania is improved, still many people seek medical care when it is too late or not at all. This study aimed to determine factors associated with delay in seeking treatment for fever among children under five in Tanzania.
The Environment for Development Initiative: lessons learned in research, academic capacity building and policy intervention to manage resources for sustainable growth
This article reviews the history of the Environment for Development (EfD) initiative, its activities in capacity building and policy-oriented research, and case studies at its centres in Chile, China, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania.
The joint EfD Report 2013/14 showcases the work undertaken by the Environment for Development Initiative.
In this work, we undertook an integrated assessment of water and forest ecosystem to develop the value-based sustainability indicators (VBSI) of watershed resource.
Behavioral responses and the impact of new agricultural technologies: Evidence from a double-blind field experiment in Tanzania
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the social sciences are typically not double-blind, so participants know they are “treated” and will adjust their behavior accordingly. Such effort responses complicate the assessment of impact.
Evaluating the Impact of Improved Maize Varieties on Food Security in Rural Tanzania: Evidence from a Continuous Treatment Approach
This paper investigates impact heterogeneity in the adoption of improved maize varieties using data from rural Tanzania. We used a generalized propensity-score matching methodology, complemented with a parametric econometric method to check the robustness of results.
Technical Efficiency as a Sustainability Indicator in Continuum of Integrated Natural Resources Management
To understand variables that link the welfare, livelihood and the watershed is crucial when instituting the integrated watershed management. This requires having indicators to show changes of the condition of the welfare, livelihoods and watershed resources. However, the combination of livelihoods and welfare of the local communities who depend largely on watershed resources for income, food, energy and shelter have not been adequately considered elsewhere.
The study considers the inclusion of dummy explanatory variables (in regression estimation) in both cross –section and time series data. In survey data, a continuous variable may be categorized into a dummy variable dataset whenever the quality, reliability and internal consistency of the continuous data is put into question. In the process of categorization, vita information may be compromised: in other words there is loss of information. Furthermore, an arbitrary choice of cutoff points may yield different regression estimates depending on the cutoff point.
Distributional Differences in Upper Tail Observation of Per capital Household Expenditure in Tanzania in 2001 and 2007
Recent economic growth in Tanzania has not been matched by a corresponding reduction in poverty when compared with similar episode of growth in countries such as Uganda, Ghana, etc. This has raised heated debate, whereby some analysts argue that problem lies on the GDP is compiled, and other on the validity of Household Budget Survey (HBS) data. This paper contributes to that debate by analyzing the distribution of upper tail observation using he Generalized Pareto Distributions show that HBS 2007 is characterized by extreme values of per capita expenditure when compares to 2001.
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, or REDD, is a mechanism for providing financial rewards to countries that reduce carbon emissions caused by the loss and degradation of their forests. In concept, REDD resembles other Payment for Environmental Services (PES) programs. However, REDD emphasizes a reduction in deforestation and degradation rates from expected levels, also known as avoided deforestation and degradation.
The impact of buffer zone size and management on illegal extraction, park protection, and enforcement
Many protected areas or parks in developing countries have buffer zones at their boundaries to achieve the dual goals of protecting park resources and providing resource benefits to neighbouring people.
Data from two Household Budget Surveys in 1991-1992 and 2000-2001 in Tanzania indicate that there is no change in inequality between the two surveys. In spite of this finding, and impressive macroeconomic gains, there is growing discontent throughout the country because of the belief that the change from socialist to market policies has worsened income inequality.
This book is about land tenure policies from an international perspective. It adds on the first book published by Holden and Otsuka entitled The Emergence of Land Markets in Africa: Assessing the Impacts on Poverty, Equity, and Efficiency (2009) in a much deeper way with a stronger and clearer focus on policy issues.
REDD (reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation) aims to slow carbon releases caused by forest disturbance by making payments conditional on forest quality over time. Like earlier policies to slow deforestation, REDD must change the behaviour of forest degrading actors.
How Successeful Has Payment for Environmental Services Improved Welfare? (Case of Uluguru Mountain –Morogoro)
This study was carried out to find out the impact of PES on the welfare of the communities in the Uluguru Mountains. The objective is to assess PES project which aims at conserving the environment (forest) and reducing poverty level.
This report presents the Environment for Development Initiative (EfD), its members and work during 2012/13. For a free hardcopy, please send an email to: email@example.com
This report presents EfD Tanzania, its members and work during 2012/13. For a free hardcopy, please send an email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
This study examines the linkage between the profitability of firms measured by return on assets (ROA) and environmental performance measured by eco-efficiency and also the impact of a good environmental management system (EMS) on profitability and eco-efficiency of firms.
Itinerant traders provide an important route for West Africa’s farmers’ to get their perishable produce rapidly to the distant urban markets. But these farmers often accuse the traders of offering “unfairly” low prices while preventing direct access to these markets.