A sharper and more focused national strategy for growth and poverty reduction for the coming five years – that is the aim of an ongoing rigorous review of Tanzania´s first National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP). EfD researcher John Ked Mduma is a technical advisor to the review process under the Minister of Finance and Economic Affairs, and EfD Coordinator Dr. Razack Lokina provides research studies, commissioned by the Government, to fill certain information gaps.
"If you really care about poverty you should subsidise the things the poor need the most - and that is surely not petrol", says Professor Thomas Sterner commenting the current policy debate on fuel subsidies in Ghana, in the newspaper Ghana´s Business and Financial Times. The comment builds on research in a number of different countries conducted by Professor Thomas Sterner to which Dr Robinson and Dr Akpalu are contributing. The research will result in a book.
Dr John Ked Mduma, EfD research fellow in Tanzania is currently a technical advisor to NSGRP, National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty review process under the Minister of Finance and Economic Affairs.
Dr Lokina coordinator of EfD in Tanzania was interviewed by the daily paper This day, to comment on the strategies on strengthen fisheries governance and legal frameworks to eliminate illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing in the sub regional states of the Indian Ocean.
Mark Purdon of the University of Toronto (Canada) carried -out research in collaboration at EfD Tanzania on climate change policy. The subject is the performance of existing projects under the Kyoto Protocol’s carbon offset system Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) operating in Tanzania and their contribution to sustainable regional development, with a focus on land governance.
EfD Tanzania Pressrelease 2009-02-20
The Deputy Minister for Natural Resources and Tourism, Ezekiel Maige, recently underscored the need for people living around forest reserves to be empowered with forest management skills. Researchers at Environment for Development Tanzania (EfDT), an initiative based at the Department of Economics at the University of Dar es Salaam, have identified a number of critical areas that will help both to protect Tanzania’s forests and the livelihoods of those villagers living close to the forests.
On Wednesday 10th December 2008, Environment for Development Tanzania held a policy workshop in Dar es Salaam to discuss with key stakeholders the findings from their recently completed research project that addresses the determinants of successful participatory forest management in Tanzania.
EfD Tanzania Pressrelease 2008-11-02
The Tanzanian newspaper Daily News, one of the biggest English newspapers in the country, interviewed Razack Lokina, fellow reseacher and coordinator of the EfD center in Tanzania, and Hakan Eggert, resident advisor and fellow researcher of the EfD center in Tanzania, on over fishing of Nile perch in Lake Victoria.
Sustainable Intensification of Agricultural Research and Learning in Africa (SAIRLA): Research and Learning for Sustainable intensification of Smallholder Livestock Value Chains in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Tanzania
Livestock production systems in developing countries are undergoing very rapid development. Sustained participation in development decisions regarding equitable, long term production rests upon a continued and inclusive learning and adaptive process.
Tanzania has recently embarked on the industrialization agenda by 2025. Against this agenda, the contribution of efficient, reliable and quality power remains a significant indicator. The effect of unreliable power supply, outages and poor quality electricity is the major challenge which can jeopardize the industrialization strategy. Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) have been making significant contributions towards economic development of Tanzania. It is estimated that Tanzania has about 3 million SMEs, which contribute to almost 27% of GDP and 23.4% of employment (URT, 2017).
The proposed study aims to assess the effects of conservation policies in the Ngorongoro’s Conservation Area in Tanzania to predict Maasai responses to future policies.
Determinants of Climate Adaptation and the Role of Information Provision in Overcoming Barriers to Adaptation
The project aims to better understand behavioral determinants and other factors impacting climate change adaptation and technology uptake by households in Eastern and Southern Africa. The results will help in designing relevant policies for successful adaptation, thus alleviating poverty and stabilizing incomes in the face of increasing threats from climate change effects.
Could provision of a micro credit induce electricity uptake? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial in rural Tanzania
Against the background of low connection rates and low electricity consumption in recently electrified villages, the purpose of this project is to improve the understanding why people connect and invest in electric appliances and why they do not.
Water insecurity and quality is a major challenge in Tanzania. In this project, we concentrate on the supply by examining the potential for using low-cost behavioural interventions to improve water supply management.
The Impact of the System of Rice Intensification on Small-holder Farmers’ Welfare: Does Partial Adoption Matter?
This study will assess the determinants of partial adoption dynamics and its impact implications on yield and farm profit among rice farmers in Morogoro region of Tanzania using a unique panel data. We will build on the previously collected data set from the same farmers to gather additional information on the adoption choices and dynamics, but also build up a panel data set for a relatively cleaner identification strategy of the impact of System of Rice Intensification (SRI).
Recent literature on constraints to adoption of clean cookstoves points out liquidity and access to credit as the key factors explaining the low adoption rate of modern cooking appli-ances in developing countries .
Charcoal Consumption and Willingness to Adopt LPG stoves: Evidence from a Baseline Survey in Urban Tanzania
Use of biomass fuels such as charcoal has been documented to be a prime cause of deforestation and environmental degradation in developing countries. Yet there are low rates of adoption to more environmental friendly cookstoves.
The goal of this project is to link frameworks of community or group resource management rules and of individual incentives for resource conservation in response to policy to inform and improve the success of REDD implementation in Tanzania. The project’s direct connection to Tanzania’s policy process through collaboration with TFCG will expand the role of environmental economics capacity within that policy process and promote effective policies to address climate change through REDD.
Wildlife Corridors and Communities in the East and West Usambara Mountains: Toward Integrating Social and Biological Information in Conservation Policy and Priorities
The higher order goal of this project is to identify biodiversity conservation strategies on land surrounding protected forest fragments to determine the least cost approach improving conservation outcomes in the Usambara Mountains of Tanzania.
Wildlife Corridors and Communities in the East and West Usambara Mountains: Toward Integrating Social and Biological Information in Conservation Policy and Priorities
Forest fragmentation threatens biodiversity because many species cannot survive in small, disconnected patches of habitat. Within the biodiversity hot spot of the Eastern Arc mountains, the East and West Usambara Mountains contain many species in a highly fragmented forest. Decades of bird population data demonstrate that the forest fragments will continue to lose bird species even
Neoclassical microeconomic theory of the consumer postulates that a rational consumer maximizes utility subject to a budget constraint. The direct implication of this theory is that the source of the income does not affect consumption behavior.
What Drives the (Non) Adoption of Agricultural Technologies? Time Preferences and Social Networks in Rural Tanzania
The adoption of new agricultural technologies is instrumental in the process of adaptation to climate change. Yet, in eastern Africa the adoption rate have been very small. Besides institutional explanations, the recent literature has pointed out at the role of impatience we explore the relative importance of this explanation vis-à-vis an alternative explanation based on sharing pressure within social networks. A combination of lab and field experiments will be used to address theses questions.
Marine Protected Areas and Small-Scale Fishing Behavior: a Comparative Analysis between South Africa, Tanzania and Costa Rica
This thematic program examines marine resource conservation. This multi-center collaborative project, the first within this thematic program, focuses on improving policy to promote coastal conservation through marine protected areas (MPAs) and related management tools. Because signatories of the Convention on Biological Diversity have committed to establishing MPAs on 10 percent of their coastal waters, a widespread expansion of these areas is underway worldwide.
Despite the centrality of African parks and other protected areas to nature-based tourism, they capture only a fraction of its value. For this reason, national parks and other protected areas have mostly relied on fiscal transfers from the state to fund their conservation activities.
Land Conservation Technologies Adoption and its Impact on Smallholder Agriculture in Tanzania: A case study of REDD implementing areas
Land degradation is a major serious problem in Tanzania that contributes greatly to decline in productivity and poses a threat to rural livelihood and the economy at large given the importance of agriculture in the country
Sustainable financing options of the climate change and climate variability adaptation measures by rural smallholder farmers in Tanzania
A majority of the rural poor in Tanzania derive their income from agriculture. The most important input in the agricultural production is labour and the rain water. This situation implies that, very large proportion of population in the country is vulnerable to climatic change and variability. At the national level there exist various interventions in the agriculture sector to facilitate increased efficiency and productivity.
Tanzania is largely an agrarian economy where over 70 percent of the population lives in the rural areas. The mainstay of the rural economy is agriculture and livestock keeping, and the agriculture production relies almost exclusively on the rainfall. As a result, changes in the rainfall pattern have a direct and immediate impact on the agriculture production, which in turn impacts on the household welfare through income and consumption.
Effects of Deforestation on household Time Allocation among the Rural Agricultural Activities: Evidence from Central and Southern Tanzania
Trees in forested and agricultural landscapes are particularly important because they provide high values of environmental services and biodiversity. In this proposed study we want to establish the link between deforestation, time allocation to fuel-wood collection and agriculture. We will use a non-separable (non-recursive mode) to test the participation of households in fuel-wood collection and farming activities using data from Central and Southern Tanzania. We would like to analyze how labour time, gender composition of the household, seasonality and agro-ecological differences affect household labour allocation decisions
One of the policy measures adopted in the recent past by the government of Tanzania during the implementation of the Agricultural Sector Development Program and the Kilimo Kwanza Strategy is a subsidy to fertilizer and other agricultural inputs through the Voucher system
REDD – Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation – is a new form of payment for environmental services that has to potential to fund forest protection in Tanzania.
REDD – Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation – is a new form of payment for environmental services that has to potential to fund forest protection in Tanzania. REDD programs would build on the Government of Tanzania’s introduction of new forest laws that have enabled the implementation of Participatory Forest Management (PFM)Because any policy that slows forest degradation does so by limiting resource access bynearby forest-dependent communities, implementing REDD will require understanding those communities forest management/use decisions and their likely response to REDD policies, even if REDD policies funnel monies to those communities.
Protecting Peri-Urban forests and livelihoods: Spatial Enforcement Issues and Incentives for Community-Based Initiatives
This project stems from discussions with forest managers whose existing policies have not created the hoped-for incentives for locals to engage in enforcement of access restrictions by outsiders. This is particularly important for Kibaha’s forests because of their proximity to Dar es Salaam, a large city with high demand for charcoal and timber. Forest managers do not have mechanisms for influencing where local villagers harvest NTFPs; they also have little information on which to base their allocation of scarce patrol efforts.
The goal of the proposed project is to improve environmental sustainability and reduce rural poverty in Tanzania. The project seeks to achieve this goal by focusing on PFM, which has its main goal to increase forest stocks. The proposed project looks at the linkage between forest policies and standard on-farm economic effects. The project is therefore expected to increase understanding about how better forest managment impacts critical, standard economic objectives like investments and labor market development
Tanzania’s seven Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are governed by the same set of national laws and regulations, but face different opportunities and pressuresthat depend in part on location, the number of local communities dependent on the marine resources, and tourism opportunities.
Incentives to Cooperate with Marine Protected Areas As a Function of Location: Mnazi Bay Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park Case Study
As marine protected areas (MPAs) are applied in poor countries, and in particular in Mnazi Bay, Tanzania, managers recognize that the success of the MPA in protecting fish, biodiversity, and reefs stems from the response of local people – whether that response comes from direct enforcement activities or from incentives to cooperate with new restrictions. In Mnazi Bay, managers are combining enforcement of new regulations on fishing locations and technology with investments in community-based projects and resource management councils and widespread education efforts. In the terrestrial setting, integrated development-conservation projects (ICDPs) typically failed due to a lack of linkage between the development projects and conservation incentives and goals, leaving the development projects as compensation for losses associated with enforcement of access restrictions. MPA implementation seeks to avoid such failures and induce cooperation by focusing on projects that rely on healthy oceans and mangrove forests in addition to providing new technologies like larger mesh nets.
Booming Fish Exports and Relative Welfare of Local Communities: Empirical Evidence From Around Lake Victoria, Tanzania
The project aims at assessing the welfare implication of the booming fish export at the household level around Lake Victoria. With the experience of the pilot study conducted successfully last September by Andrea Mannberg –a Ph.D candidate who is also working in the project. Adolf Mkenda and John Mduma coordinate the project and other logistics for the final field work to be carried out in March-April 2008. They are in charge of organizing the term of interviewers from the Lake Victoria regions and also organizing the interviewee.
Following the 1998 National Forest Policy and the Forest Act of 2002, participatory forest management (PFM) is being introduced in Tanzania, yet little rigorous analysis has been undertaken to determine the effectiveness of PFM, in terms of both protecting forest resources and improving forest-dependent livelihoods and thereby reducing poverty.
Read about what EfD centers around the world have been up to during the last year in terms of research highlights and how our research relate to the Sustainable Development Goals.
We study post-harvest decisions among Tanzanian rice farmers. Risk and time preference experiments are used to understand post-harvest decisions. In particular, we investigate storage and processing decisions, which according to our study can increase income by more than 50 per cent, but also introduce risk and time delays. Experimentally elicited risk and time preferences are statistically significant in explaining these post-harvest decisions. Impatient farmers are less likely to store paddy, and risk-averse farmers are less likely both to process and store paddy for future sales.
Agricultural production diversity, dietary diversity and nutritional status: Panel data evidence from Tanzania
Household agricultural production for self-consumption is often highlighted by nutritionists as the main route to increasing household food security and nutritional status, especially for the poor in developing countries. At the same time, the income gains from specializing in fewer crops and selling the surplus product could be an alternate route to improved nutritional status. We use Tanzanian data to study linkages between the diversity and market orientation of a household’s agricultural production, the quality and diversity of their diets, and the nutritional status of their children.
The Association Between Household Wealth and Nutritional Status of Preschool Children in Tanzania: Evidence from the 2012-13 National Panel Survey
This study aims to investigate the association between household wealth and nutritional status among preschool children in Tanzania. The analysis is based on a nationally representative sample of 2,120 children from the Tanzania National Panel Survey (NPS), 2012/13. Household wealth was measured by wealth index constructed using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA); whereas child stunting and underweight were used to determine the nutritional status of a child.
Analysis of Socio-Ecological Impacts of Built Environment at Dar es Salaam Metropolitan Coastline, Tanzania
This paper analyzed and mapped the impact of built environment (BE) on socio-ecological services along Dar es Salaam metropolitan coastline. In the period of 1995-2016, burgeoning population exacerbated high rate of construction processes and activities. Such anthropic initiatives affect the benefits and values delivered by landscape wetlands, estuaries, beach areas, open space and greenery patches in Dar es Salaam coastline.
Technical Efficiency in Agriculture and Its Implication on Forest Conservation in Tanzania: The Case Study of Kilosa District (Morogoro)
This paper examines technical efficiency in farming activities and its implication on forest conservation in Kilosa District. The empirical analysis is based on data collected from 301 households selected randomly from five villages in Kilosa district, of which three villages were under the REDD+ project. Two empirical models were estimated: stochastic frontier Translog production function, and forest resources extraction model.
The Tanzanian component of the VALOR Project (2014-2018) studied quality factors, traits and conditions with potential to increase value of agricultural products in Tanzania through Geographical Indication (GI) protection, by recognizing territory specific (origin) products stewarded by smallholder. This policy brief summarises the key findings on policy option flowing from the research.
Parks and nature reserves created for conservation often become forest islands in a matrix of other land uses. Their species populations often decline due to this forest fragmentation. There is increasing evidence that conservation outside of reserves is required to slow biodiversity loss. This evidence, coupled with the species decline due to fragmentation, implies that conservation policies require a landscape perspective that includes the land in between protected areas. In low-income countries, however, these “matrix” areas often support rural people’s livelihoods.