We used 2008 DHS data sets to construct child height- and weight-for-age Z-scores and used regression analysis to analyze the effects of different sources of drinking water and sanitation on child health outcomes in Nigeria. We also calculated the probability of a child being stunted or underweight as our measure of malnutrition among children aged 0–59 months.
This paper uses data from household- and plot-level surveys conducted in the highlands of the Tigray and Amhara regions of Ethiopia to examine the contribution of sustainable land-management practices to net values of agricultural production in areas with low- and high-agricultural potential.
In this book chapter, the authors argue that contrary to the general view shared among social science scientists until the eighties, resource wealth seems actually to impede the economic performance of many countries.
This paper analyzes the views of South African investment organizations on the likelihood of commodification of environmental risks in their investment decision processes. It is based on an empirical qualitative survey of 22 investment organizations, which are signatories to the United Nations’ Principles for Responsible Investment.
This paper formulates a bioeconomic model to analyze community incentives for wildlife management under benefit-sharing programs like the Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) in Zimbabwe.
This paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration to estimate the coefficients of the determinants of international tourism demand for Zimbabwe for the period 1998 to 2005.The results show that taste formation, transport costs, changes in global income and certain specific event have a significant impact on international tourism demand.
The two main research objectives of the WRC project K5/1413 were to generate information that would be useful in guiding the efficient allocation of river water to South African estuaries and to test selected hypotheses on factors that explained willingness to pay for river inflows into South African estuaries.
This book provides economic guidance on the matter through valuable comparisons of different estuaries.
This paper describes the development and rationale of a holistic and transparent approach for evaluating the ecological, social and economic trade-offs in water allocation in order to set the ecological Reserve (freshwater allocation) to aquatic ecosystems.
This paper uses empirical data on the crustacean and linefish fisheries to estimate the potential impacts of changes in freshwater flows on the industry, using a modelling approach.
The paper provides and tests empirically a conditional resource curse theory, postulating that the relative effectiveness of the contenders plays a crucial role in determining whether resources are a curse or a blessing.
The paper shows that unstructured lending from international credit markets can create incentives to loot the country; and an enhanced likelihood of looting causes greater political instability, and diminishes growth.
The paper gives guidance on the ways of reducing pollution in a township settlement.
The authors studied the potential trade-off between countries’ investments in mitigation versus adaptation to climate change. Mitigating greenhouse gases may be a public good, but adaptation to climate change is a private good, benefiting only the country or individual.
Climate change mitigation presents us with a social dilemma: while mitigation benefits everyone, individuals lack the incentive to alter their behaviour, since they can reap its benefits while failing to reduce their own emissions.
This paper explores whether any investment products or strategies in South Africa take environmental sustainability into account. By looking at how environmental, social, and governance (ESG) criteria are used in investment decision making, we found that most socially responsible investment products and responsible investment strategies largely focus on infrastructure, development, and black economic empowerment.
Wetlands are commonly understood to have the capacity to reduce the loads of excess nutrients, pathogens, sediments, and other contaminants generated by various activities in their catchment areas. However, quantifying these “services” is difficult and most research in this field has concentrated on artificial treatment wetlands. Understanding the value of their water treatment characteristics, as well as the other services they provide, is increasingly recognized as essential to achieving a balance between conservation and activities that degrade or replace wetlands.
This paper investigates the use of charges and standards in dealing with a common externality, plastic litter from shopping bags in Botswana. The country passed a plastic bag tax (effective 2007) to curb the plastic bag demand. Interestingly, the legislation did not force retailers to charge for plastic bags, which they did voluntarily at different prices.
Tourism development provides an important opportunity for reducing pressures on the delta’s natural resources as well as reducing people’s dependence on the these resources for their livelihoods.
Wetlands play a significant role in removal of organic agricultural pollutants from rivers. A study conducted in the Western Cape, South Africa, shows that small wetlands can play a significant cumulative role in the amelioration of the quality of water emanating from their catchment areas, and that the value of this service is high enough to warrant their protection.
This paper uses data spanning different pricing regimes to estimate the aggregate agricultural supply response to price and non-price factors in Zimbabwe.
This paper uses a bioeconomic modelling approach to show that for some optimal allocation of the mopane forest stock, the restrictive harvest period policy advocated by community leaders may not lead to sustainable harvesting of the worm.
Tanzania recognises the potential of international tourism in accelerating socio-economic development, particularly as a supplier of foreign exchange, investment and employment. This paper investigates the factors affecting international tourism demand for Tanzania.
The Environment for Development initiative started in 2007 and this is the report for the first three-year period.
Wednesday 31 March 2010, EfD/EPRU Researcher Dr Stephanie Giamporcaro presented to investors, media and fellow academics the findings of the report: Environmentally Responsible Investment in South Africa: The state of play.
The state of play: a survey of responsible investor opinions and practices
A new EfD/RFF Book titled "Land Reforms in Asia and Africa - Impacts on Poverty and Natural Resource Management" is planned for 2012. Editors are Professors Stein Holden and Keijiro Otsuka.
This paper investigates the factors affecting international tourism demand for Tanzania.
The authors studied the potential tradeoff between countries’ investments in mitigation versus adaptation to climate change. Mitigating greenhouse gases may be a public good, but adaptation to climate change is a private good, benefiting only the country or individual.
Studies have shown differences in cooperative behavior across countries and in the use of (and reaction to) a norm enforcement mechanism in cross-cultural studies.
This paper analyses the development and economic functioning of the car guards industry with the understanding that the market exhibits quasipublic good characteristics.
This paper investigates whether South African households and small businesses can take advantage of the country's substantial wind resources to produce their own power from small- scale wind turbines in a viable way.
This paper deals with bioprospecting defined as the purposeful search for natural compounds undertaken by pharmaceutical or biotechnology firms to find leads necessary for the development of new drugs.
The paper develops a dynamic discrete choice model of a self-interested and unchecked ruler making decisions regarding the development of a resource rich country.
This chapter provides a case study of the use of choice modelling method in irrigation water supply policy and management in Portugal.
One of the most pressing problems faced by the Tunisian farmers and authorities is the inexorable decline of the water table over the past twenty years due to the over-exploitation of the groundwater. This study is an attempt to find how this issue can be resolved through collective action.
This paper analyses differences in the choice of health care facility by ill individuals in HIV/AIDS-affected households in the Free State province of South Africa.
The aim of this working paper is to investigate the optimal regulatory routes from a competition and public interest point of view for the South African water industry.
This thesis consists of six papers, related to artifactual field experiments, conducted in South Africa. The main focus of the thesis is the effect of different forms of heterogeneity on cooperation and punishment within groups.
By making use of national historical data and statistical analysis, this paper argues that community-based wildlife conservation is a feasible hedge asset for agricultural production in rural Zimbabwe.
While many factors might affect biodiversity conservation, the use of economic incentives is argued to be potentially one of the most effective mechanisms for mainstreaming biodiversityconservation in bioregions. Institutions are singled out as one important class of socio-economic arrangements directly associated with economic incentives.
The efficient governance of information-production is analysed in the context of the bio-technology industry. Here primary R&D generates pure abstract information on the nature of biological solution concepts, while secondary R&D generates commercial products marketable to consumers.
The Economics of Climate Change: Putting a Price on Carbon
Using South Africa’s hake and rock lobster fisheries, the authors argue the need for satellite accounts of South Africa’s commercial fisheries.
This publication provides advice on how to approach wetland valuation studies in terms of methodological rigour, breadth and depth of the analsys, according to their application, and provides detailed guidelines for valuation methods used for different types of value.
This publication is a compilation of five wetland valuation case studies carried out on different provisioning, regulating and cultural services and at different scales in South Africa in Lesotho.
This publication provides an explanation of the social benefits provided by wetlands in rural and urban areas, and a logical and straightforward way in which to quantify and compare the importance of individual wetlands in terms of their livelihood contribution.
This publication provides a comprehensive review of the nature of the services provided by wetlands, how they are measured and valued, giving case study examples from around the world.
If communities living adjacent to the elephant see it as a burden, then they cannot be its stewards. To assess their valuation of it, a contingent valuation method study was conducted for one CAMPFIRE district in Zimbabwe.
This paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration to estimate the coefficients of the determinants of international tourism demand for Zimbabwe for the period 1998 to 2005. The results show that taste formation, transport costs, changes in global income and certain specific events have a significant impact on international tourism demand.