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South Africa


A green revolution betrayed? Seed technology and small-scale maize farmers in Zimbabwe

Since the 1960s both large- and small-scale Zimbabwean maize farmers have been replacing open pollinated varieties (OPVs) with locally developed hybrids. By the 1990s, most were buying hybrid seed, though the adoption rates of new seed types were slowing. With the collapse of the Zimbabwean economy many small farmers returned to planting OPVs and saving seed, not only because hybrid seed was unavailable but also as a rational response to economic risks.


Sustainable and responsible investment in emerging markets: integrating environmental risks in the South African investment industry

This article analyses the views of South African investment organizations about the likelihood of commodification of environmental risks in their investment decision-making processes. It is based on an empirical qualitative survey of 22 investment organizations, which are signatories to the United Nation’s Principles for Responsible Investment.


Green certificate trading

Within a South African context, a green certificate system would provide a mechanism with which to verify compliance with any future renewable energy obligations, and would encourage renewable electricity generation in the current monopoly environment.


Use of Anthropometric Measures to Analyze How Sources of Water and Sanitation Affect Children’s Health in Nigeria

We used 2008 DHS data sets to construct child height- and weight-for-age Z-scores and used regression analysis to analyze the effects of different sources of drinking water and sanitation on child health outcomes in Nigeria. We also calculated the probability of a child being stunted or underweight as our measure of malnutrition among children aged 0–59 months.


Sovereign Debt and the Resource Curse

In this book chapter, the authors argue that contrary to the general view shared among social science scientists until the eighties, resource wealth seems actually to impede the economic performance of many countries.


A Market for Environmentally Responsible Investment? Identifying Obstacles and Enablers of Commodification of Environmental Risks in the South African Investment Industry

This paper analyzes the views of South African investment organizations on the likelihood of commodification of environmental risks in their investment decision processes. It is based on an empirical qualitative survey of 22 investment organizations, which are signatories to the United Nations’ Principles for Responsible Investment.


Modelling International Tourism Demand for Zimbabwe

This paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration to estimate the coefficients of the determinants of international tourism demand for Zimbabwe for the period 1998 to 2005.The results show that taste formation, transport costs, changes in global income and certain specific event have a significant impact on international tourism demand.


On the Looting of Nations

The paper shows that unstructured lending from international credit markets can create incentives to loot the country; and an enhanced likelihood of looting causes greater political instability, and diminishes growth.


Responsible Investment: A Vehicle for Environmentally Sustainable Economic Growth in South Africa

This paper explores whether any investment products or strategies in South Africa take environmental sustainability into account. By looking at how environmental, social, and governance (ESG) criteria are used in investment decision making, we found that most socially responsible investment products and responsible investment strategies largely focus on infrastructure, development, and black economic empowerment.


Estimation of the Water Quality Amelioration Value of Wetlands:A Case Study of the Western Cape, South Africa

Wetlands are commonly understood to have the capacity to reduce the loads of excess nutrients, pathogens, sediments, and other contaminants generated by various activities in their catchment areas. However, quantifying these “services” is difficult and most research in this field has concentrated on artificial treatment wetlands. Understanding the value of their water treatment characteristics, as well as the other services they provide, is increasingly recognized as essential to achieving a balance between conservation and activities that degrade or replace wetlands.


Behavioral Response to Plastic Bag Legislation in Botswana

This paper investigates the use of charges and standards in dealing with a common externality, plastic litter from shopping bags in Botswana. The country passed a plastic bag tax (effective 2007) to curb the plastic bag demand. Interestingly, the legislation did not force retailers to charge for plastic bags, which they did voluntarily at different prices.


Water quality amelioration value of wetlands

Wetlands play a significant role in removal of organic agricultural pollutants from rivers. A study conducted in the Western Cape, South Africa, shows that small wetlands can play a significant cumulative role in the amelioration of the quality of water emanating from their catchment areas, and that the value of this service is high enough to warrant their protection.


On the Looting of Nations

The paper develops a dynamic discrete choice model of a self-interested and unchecked ruler making decisions regarding the development of a resource rich country.