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South Africa


The Economic Valuation of Dryland Ecosystem Services in the South African Kgalagadi Area and Implications for PES Involving the Khomani San

The economic importance of the dryland ecosystem services in the Kgalagadi area is generally unknown, as is the distribution of benefits from use of the ecosystem services. This study seeks to value ecosystem services in the Kgalagadi area by applying the choice experiment technique and then assessing the potential for ecosystem services to contribute to the Khomani San livelihoods through a payment for ecosystem services (PES) scheme.


Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine environment

This paper provides an overview of social science research in the marine environment of South Africa for the period 1994–2012. A bibliography based on a review of relevant literature and social science projects funded under the SEAChange programme of the South African Network for Coastal and Oceanic Research (SANCOR) was used to identify nine main themes that capture the knowledge generated in the marine social science field. Within these themes, a wide diversity of topics has been explored, covering a wide geographic area.


Household spending patterns and flow of ecotourism income into communities around Liwonde National Park, Malawi

Rural Malawi is largely characterised by high levels of poverty, unemployment and high population densities. It is also seen as the ‘warm heart of Africa’, which, together with its abundant natural resources, makes it an excellent destination for international ecotourists. This paper looks at the impact of ecotourism employment on poverty reduction and the flow of ecotourism income into the villages adjacent to Liwonde National Park. Extensive questionnaire surveys were conducted with staff employed in ecotourism as well as with rural households in the villages adjacent to the Park.


Evaluating the Prospects of Benefit Sharing Schemes in Protecting Mountain Gorillas in Central Africa

Presently, the mountain gorilla in Rwanda, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of Congo is endangered mainly by poaching and habitat loss. This paper sets out to investigate the possible resolution of poaching involving the local community by using benefit sharing schemes with local communities. Using a bioeconomic model, the paper demonstrates that the current revenue sharing scheme yields suboptimal conservation outcomes.


Are African penguins worth saving? The ecotourism value of the Boulders Beach colony

Populations of the African penguin Spheniscus demersus have decreased dramatically over the past century, due in part to competition for food with commercial fisheries, and the species is now endangered as a result. Economic arguments are used to favour fisheries over the needs of penguins, but penguins have direct value to the South African economy thanks to penguin-based tourism at several breeding colonies.


Providing Economic Incentives for Biodiversity Conservation in an Emerging Bioregional Context

Many protected areas are not successfully conserving biodiversity, often despite adequate management within their borders. Changes in land use outside protected areas can alter ecological function inside protected areas and result in biodiversity loss given that protected areas are almost always parts of larger ecosystems. Economic incentives are seen as one of the most promising avenues to influence conservation goals.


The valuation of biodiversity conservation by the South African Khomani San "bushmen" community

The restitution of parkland to the Khomani San “bushmen” and Mier “agricultural” communities in May 2002 marked a significant shift in conservation in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and environs in South Africa. Biodiversity conservation will benefit from this land restitution only if the Khomani San, who interact with nature more than do other groups, are good environmental stewards.


The Valuation of Biodiversity Conservation by the South African Khomani San “Bushmen” Community

The restitution of parkland to the Khomani San “bushmen” and Mier “agricultural” communities in May 2002 marked a significant shift in conservation in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and environs in South Africa. Biodiversity conservation will benefit from this land restitution only if the Khomani San, who interact with nature more than do other groups, are good environmental stewards.


The impact of land management systems on community attitudes towards tourism and conservation in six southern African countries

Many rural areas of Africa are characterised by high levels of unemployment, poverty and increasing population densities. Arid climates and erratic rainfall also make many of these areas marginal for agriculture and offer few alternative employment opportunities. Ecotourism in these areas can offer a sustainable land use option that promotes biodiversity conservation, can assist in poverty reduction and promote local socio-economic development. Receipt of benefits from ecotourism is also claimed to improve community attitudes towards conservation.


Key sustainable tourism mechanisms for poverty reduction and local socio-economic development in Africa

Increasing populations, together with the impact of climate change, are resulting in greater competition for land and a necessity for sustainable land use. Tourism can provide a flow of benefits from conservation to rural communities to reduce poverty and promote biodiversity conservation. Three key mechanisms of sustainable tourism to reduce poverty are discussed:  employment, value chains and equity. These are based on primary data and a thorough literature review.


Heterogeneity and Voting: a Framed Public Good Experiment

The lack of cooperation and prevalence of free riding in efforts to reduce emissions reflects the public good dilemma synonymous with climate change: whereby individual incentives lead to sub-optimal outcomes. This study examines how cooperative norms can be fostered through democratic processes.


Adaptation to Climate Change by Smallholder Farmers in Tanzania

In Sub-Saharan Africa, climate change is set to hit the agricultural sector the most and cause untold suffering particularly for smallholder farmers. To cushion themselves against the potential welfare losses, smallholder farmers need to recognize the changes already taking place in their climate and undertake appropriate investments towards adaptation.


Maximising the value of South Africa’s coast

The recreational and aesthetic values of coastal areas have a significant economic impact, and because they are enhanced by coastal protection, the latter should receive top priority in striving to achieve development goals


Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Tourism in Africa

This is a chapter in the new publication "Sustainable Tourism & the Millennium Development Goals: Effecting Positive Change" by The International Ecotourism Society (TIES) which will be launched this year at TIES annual conference, the Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Conference (ESTC) being held in Monterey, California, USA from Sept 17-19, 2012.


Social Background, Cooperative Behavior, and Norm Enforcement

Studies have shown that there are differences in cooperative behavior across countries. Furthermore, differences in the use and the reaction on the introduction of a norm enforcement mechanism have been documented in cross-cultural studies, recently. We present data which prove that stark differences in both dimensions can exist even within the same town. For this end, a unique data set was created, based on public goods experiments conducted in Cape Town, South Africa.


Behavioral Response to Plastic Bag Legislation in Botswana

This paper investigates the use of charges and standards in dealing with a common externality, plastic litter from shopping bags in Botswana. The country passed a plastic bag tax (effective 2007) to curb the plastic bag demand. Interestingly, the legislation did not force retailers to charge for plastic bags, which they did voluntarily at different prices.


On the Looting of Nations

We develop a dynamic discrete choice model of a self-interested and unchecked ruler making decisions regarding the development of are source rich country. Resource wealth serves as collateral and facilitates the acquisition of loans.


A green revolution betrayed? Seed technology and small-scale maize farmers in Zimbabwe

Since the 1960s both large- and small-scale Zimbabwean maize farmers have been replacing open pollinated varieties (OPVs) with locally developed hybrids. By the 1990s, most were buying hybrid seed, though the adoption rates of new seed types were slowing. With the collapse of the Zimbabwean economy many small farmers returned to planting OPVs and saving seed, not only because hybrid seed was unavailable but also as a rational response to economic risks.


Sustainable and responsible investment in emerging markets: integrating environmental risks in the South African investment industry

This article analyses the views of South African investment organizations about the likelihood of commodification of environmental risks in their investment decision-making processes. It is based on an empirical qualitative survey of 22 investment organizations, which are signatories to the United Nation’s Principles for Responsible Investment.


Green certificate trading

Within a South African context, a green certificate system would provide a mechanism with which to verify compliance with any future renewable energy obligations, and would encourage renewable electricity generation in the current monopoly environment.