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Kenya

2018-11-13

Determination of optimal rotation period for management of lumbering forests in Kenya

This study estimates the optimal rotation period of various tree species in Kenya and applies it in the management of lumbering forests through optimal synchronization of forest plantations to achieve a steady supply to lumbering firms. The optimal rotation period of three tree species, pine, cypress, and eucalyptus, was estimated using data from Kenya Forest Service. A combined application of Chang simple production model and ​ Faustmann​ model​ reveals the optimal biological harvest age is 25 years for pine, 25 years for cypress, and 14 years for eucalyptus.

2018-11-13

Recreational value and optimal pricing of national parks: lessons from Maasai Mara in Kenya

This paper estimates the recreational value and optimal pricing for recreation services in the Maasai Mara National Park in Kenya. To achieve this objective, data from 323 Park visitors were collected. Single-site individual travel cost method (ITCM) using count data models [zero truncated Poisson (ZTP), zero truncated negative binomial (ZTNB), negative binomial with endogenous stratification (NBSTRAT), and Poisson with endogenous stratification (PSTRAT)] was applied.

2018-07-17

Fishing community preferences and willingness to pay for alternative developments of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) for Lake Naivasha, Kenya

Ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) is an important complement to existing fisheries management approaches to maintain ecosystem health and function; to translate goals and aspirations for sustainability into operational objectives, the preferences of the fishing communities should be considered for successful implementation of EBFM. This study analysed the preferences of the fishing community for alternative EBFM developments for Lake Naivasha, Kenya, and estimated the willingness to pay, using a choice experiment approach.

2018-06-25

EfD Kenya Annual Report 2017

The EfD Kenya Report 2017 gives you an excellent overview of the centres´ achievements during 2017 ranging from interesting policy stories on how economic research is put to use around the world to collaborative research programs, a wide range of publications, and our academic capacity efforts. 

2018-06-04

Happy Collecting Water? Measuring Hedonic Well-Being among Water Carriers in Rural Kenya using the Experience Sampling Method

Despite work’s importance in most people’s overall sense of purpose in life, several studies measuring momentary well-being find that people are quite unhappy while at work. The study populations and the nature of work in these studies, however, are all similar: industrialized workers doing paid labor in the formal sector. What about the large fraction of humanity for whom “work” is primarily working on smallholder farms, tending cattle or collecting water or firewood?

2018-01-19

Assessing the Performance of Alternative Water and Sanitation Tariffs: The Case of Nairobi, Kenya

Policy makers and utility managers can use a variety of tariff structures to calculate customers’ bills for water and sanitation services, ranging from a simple flat monthly fee to complicated multipart tariffs with seasonal pricing based on metered water use. This paper examines the performance of alternative tariff structures for water and wastewater services in Nairobi, Kenya.

2018-01-19

The Impact of Micro Hydroelectricity on Household Welfare Indicators

The use of small-scale off-grid renewable energy for rural electrification is now seen as one sustainable energy solution. The expectations from such small-scale investment include meeting basic household energy needs and thereby improving some aspects of household welfare. However, these stated benefits remain largely hypothetical because there are data and methodological challenges in existing literature attempting to isolate such impacts. This paper uses field data from micro hydro schemes in Kenya and a propensity score matching technique to demonstrate such an impact.

2017-07-03

Productive Efficiency and Its Determinants in a Changing Climate: A Monotonic Translog Stochastic Frontier Analysis

The changing weather patterns and seasonal shifts are negatively impacting agricultural ecosystems and compromising the benefits from production of agricultural goods and services. Such impacts include reduced farm returns, reduced household incomes, increase in poverty levels, and reduction in farm productivity and efficiency. Using three waves of panel data, this study applies a monotonic translog stochastic frontier (SFA) to assess the overall farm efficiency and the influence of climatic factors, agro-ecological factors, and household factors on farm level efficiency.

2017-07-03

Adaptation to Climate Change and Variability and Its Implications for Household Nutrition in Kenya

Climate change and variability are affecting weather patterns and causing seasonal shifts with serious repercussions for households and communities in Kenya. The livelihoods of the majority of Kenyans are therefore threatened due to the potential adverse impacts of climate change, such as declining production and productivity, which could lead to food insecurity. To mitigate the negative impacts of climate change and variability, farmers need to adopt different strategies, such as new crop varieties, crop and livestock diversification, and water-harvesting technologies.

2017-01-25

The Impact of Climate Change on Food Calorie Production and Nutritional Poverty: Evidence from Kenya

We investigate the effects of climate variables on food and nutrition security and the probability of a household being food and nutrition insecure. Panel data methods from three waves of the Tegemeo Institute Household survey data (2004, 2007, and 2010) are used. Climate change is measured by long-term averages of temperature and rainfall, all measured at the peak precipitation month and extreme values of the Standardised Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI).

2017-01-16

Catastrophic Health Expenditure and household Impoverishment: a Case of Prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases in Kenya

Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) have become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. Their claim on financial and time resources adversely affects household welfare. Households predominantly pay healthcare costs for NCDs in Kenya as Out of Pocket expenditure (OOP). Health expenditure on NCDs stands at 6.2% of total health expenditure, which is 0.4% of the total gross domestic product of the country. This expenditure scenario has implications on household welfare through catastrophic expenditure in Kenya.

2017-01-16

Prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases and Social Interactions in Kenya: An Empirical Analysis

Despite a remarkable progress in the control and management of communicable diseases over the past century, the world is not better-off as the prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) is on the increase, both in developed and developing countries. The upsurge in NCD prevalence is attributable to risk factors both outside and within the control of individuals. One risk factor that has received less attention than it deserves is the social interactions variable.

2017-01-16

Economic Effects of Non-Communicable Diseases on Household Income in Kenya: A Comparative Analysis Perspective

Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) have been on the increase in Kenya over the past decade. This rising trend has led NCDs to account for over 30% of the annual total disease-related deaths in the country. Between 2005 and 2009, major NCDs (cancer, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory ailments and diabetes) accounted for over half of the top 20 causes of disease-related deaths in Kenya.

2017-01-16

A Simple Stated Preference Tool for Estimating the Value of Travel Time in Rural Africa

Despite its importance in benefit-cost analyses in the water supply, transportation, and health care sectors, there are relatively few empirical estimates of the value of travel time savings (VTT) in low-income countries, particularly in rural areas. Analysts instead often rely on a textbook “rule of thumb” of valuing time at 50% of prevailing unskilled wage rates, though these benchmarks have little empirical support in these settings. We estimate the value of travel time through the use of a repeated discrete choice stated preference exercise.

2017-01-16

The Costs of Coping with Poor Water Supply in Rural Kenya

As the disease burden of poor access to water and sanitation declines around the world, the non-health benefits – mainly the time burden of water collection – will likely grow in importance in sector funding decisions and investment analyses. We measure the coping costs incurred by households in one area of rural Kenya. Sixty percent of the 387 households interviewed were collecting water outside the home, and household members were spending an average of two to three hours doing so per day.

2016-06-01

Water and sanitation service delivery, pricing, and the poor: An empirical estimate of subsidy incidence in Nairobi, Kenya

The increasing block tariff (IBT) is among the most widely used tariffs by water utilities, particularly in developing countries. This is due in part to the perception that the IBT can effectively target subsidies to low-income households. Combining data on households' socioeconomic status and metered water use, this paper examines the distributional incidence of subsidies delivered through the IBT in Nairobi, Kenya.

2016-02-23

Evaluating the Performance of Alternative Municipal Water Tariff Designs Quantifying the Trade-offs between Cost Recovery, Equity, and Economic Efficiency

The design of municipal water tariffs requires balancing multiple criteria such as financial self-sufficiency for the service provider, equity, and economic efficiency for society. A modelling framework is developed for analysing how alternative municipal water tariff designs affect these three criteria. It is then applied to a hypothetical community in which a municipal water utility provides metered, piped water and wastewater services to 5,000 households.

2016-02-22

Effects of climate change on agricultural households’ welfare in Kenya

Natural and artificial ecosystems (such as agricultural ecosystems), confer benefits in the form of provisioning, regulatory, cultural and habitat goods and services to nations and humanity as a whole. Degradation of ecosystems through different threats and drivers compromises their ability of provide these goods and services. In Kenya, just like many African countries, climate change and variability is a driver affecting weather patterns and causing seasonal shifts.

2016-02-18

Health shocks and natural resource management: Evidence from Western Kenya

Abstract: Poverty and altered planning horizons brought on by the HIV/AIDS epidemic can change individual discount rates, altering incentives to conserve natural resources. Using longitudinal household survey data from Western Kenya, we estimate the effects of health status on investments in soil quality, as indicated by households’ agricultural land fallowing decisions.

2016-02-18

What Determines Gender Inequality in Household Food Security in Kenya? Application of Exogenous Switching Treatment Regression

Abstract: This paper explores the link between the gender of a household head and food security in rural Kenya. The results show that the food security gap between male-headed households (MHHs) and female-headed households (FHHs) is explained by their differences in observable and unobservable characteristics. FHHs’ food security status would have been higher than it is now if the returns (coefficients) on their observed characteristics had been the same as the returns on the MHHs’ characteristics.

2016-02-09

Effects of climate change on agricultural households’ welfare in Kenya

Natural and artificial ecosystems (such as agricultural ecosystems), confer benefits in the form of provisioning, regulatory, cultural and habitat goods and services to nations and humanity as a whole. Degradation of ecosystems through different threats and drivers compromises their ability of provide these goods and services. In Kenya, just like many African countries, climate change and variability is a driver affecting weather patterns and causing seasonal shifts.

2016-01-19

Climate Change and Food Security in Kenya Does Climate Change Affect Food Insecurity in Kenya?

The research analyzes the impact of climate change (including increased variability and less predictability of temperature and rainfall) on food security in Kenya. The study is based on county-level data, collected over time, for yields of four major crops (maize, beans, sorghum and millet), four climate variables (precipitation, temperature, runoff and total cloud cover), population, soil and agro-ecological zones data spanning over three decades. The paper estimates models of main food crop yields and also of the probability of a county being food insecure.

2015-08-06

Exploring the Odds for Actual and Desired Adoption of Solar Energy in Kenya

Although Kenya enjoys a high and widespread daily solar insolation, and despite enactment of policies to promote adoption of renewable energy technologies, not many households have picked up solar technologies. The objective of this study is to find out the incidence and predictors of actual up-take of solar technology as well as households’ desire to switch to solar in light of their perception of its cost advantage.

2015-07-28

Water and Sanitation Service Delivery, Pricing, and the Poor: An Empirical Estimate of Subsidy Incidence in Nairobi, Kenya

The increasing block tariff (IBT) is among the most widely used tariffs by water utilities, particularly in developing countries. This is in part due to the perception that the IBT can effectively target subsidies to low-income households. Combining data on households’ socioeconomic status and metered water use, this paper examines the distributional incidence of subsidies delivered through the water tariff in Nairobi, Kenya.

2015-05-28

The Costs of Coping with Poor Water Supply in Rural Kenya

As the disease burden of poor access to water and sanitation declines around the world, the non-health benefits – mainly the time burden of water collection – will likely grow in importance in sector funding decisions and investment analysis. We measure the coping costs incurred by households in one area of rural Kenya. Sixty percent of the 387 households interviewed were collecting water outside the home, and household members were spending an average of two to three hours doing so per day. We value these time costs using an individual-level value of travel time estimate based on a stated preference experiment.

2015-05-28

A Simple Stated Preference Tool for Estimating the Value of Travel Time in rural Africa

Despite its importance in benefit-cost analysis in the water supply, transportation, and health care sectors, there are relatively few empirical estimates of the value of travel time savings (VTT) in low-income countries, particularly in rural areas. Analysts instead often rely on a textbook “rule of thumb” of valuing time at 50% of prevailing unskilled wage rates, though these benchmarks have little empirical support in these settings. We estimate the value of travel time through the use of a repeated discrete choice stated preference exercise.

2015-05-04

Climate Change and Food Security in Kenya

The paper investigates the effects of climate change on food security in Kenya. Fixed and random effects regressions for food crop security are estimated. The study further simulates the expected impact of future climate change on food insecurity based on the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios and Atmospheric Oceanic Global Circulation Models. The study is based on county-level panel data for yields of four major crops and daily climate variables data spanning over three decades. The results show that climate variability and change will increase food insecurity.

2015-04-23

Household Energy Conservation in Kenya: Estimating the Drivers and Possible Savings

This paper uses the National Energy Survey Data for Kenya 2009 to investigate the main determinants of household energy conservation and savings, exploiting discrete choice and Tobit models. It estimatea conservation models for five household fuels—fuel wood, charcoal, kerosene, LPG, and electricity—and generates information to predict not only the odds for household energy conservation but also the levels of possible savings.

2015-01-31

Does Institutional Isolation Matter for Soil Conservation Decisions? Evidence From Kenya

This article investigates the role of institutional isolation on the adoption of soil conservation technologies in Kenya. The study is based on the theory of induced technical and institutional innovations and on the literature on land tenure security and investment incentives. A multinomial logit model for adoption of various soil conservation investments (SCI) is estimated.

2014-11-15

Strategic Environmental and Social Assessment of REDD+ Improve Forest Governance

Forest tenure reforms are occurring in many developing countries around the world. These reforms typically include devolution of forest lands to local people and communities, which has attracted a great deal of attention and interest. While the nature and level of devolution vary by country, all have potentially important implications for resource allocation, local ecosystem services, livelihoods and climate change.

2014-11-15

Local Community Participation under Reformed Forest Management in Kenya: Lessons and Policy Implications

Forest tenure reforms are occurring in many developing countries around the world. These reforms typically include devolution of forest lands to local people and communities, which has attracted a great deal of attention and interest. While the nature and level of devolution vary by country, all have potentially important implications for resource allocation, local ecosystem services, livelihoods and climate change.

2014-10-06

Forest Tenure Reform in Asia and Africa: Local Control for Improved Livelihoods, Forest Management, and Carbon Sequestration

Forest tenure reforms are occurring in many developing countries around the world. These reforms typically include devolution of forest lands to local people and communities, which has attracted a great deal of attention and interest. While the nature and level of devolution vary by country, all have potentially important implications for resource allocation, local ecosystem services, livelihoods and climate change. 

2014-09-24

Non-parametric Estimation of Environmental Efficiency Using Data Envelopment Analysis and Free Disposable Hull

Strategic Performance Management and Measurement Using Data Envelopment Analysis highlights the advantages of using DEA as a tool to improve business performance and identify sources of inefficiency in public and private organizations. These recently developed theories and applications of DEA will be useful for policymakers, managers, and practitioners in the areas of sustainable development of our society including environment, agriculture, finance, and higher education sectors.

2014-08-15

The Environment for Development Initiative: lessons learned in research, academic capacity building and policy intervention to manage resources for sustainable growth

This article reviews the history of the Environment for Development (EfD) initiative, its activities in capacity building and policy-oriented research, and case studies at its centres in Chile, China, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania.

2014-06-06

Risk perception, choice of drinking water and water treatment: Evidence from Kenyan towns

This study used household survey data from four Kenyan towns to examine the effect of households' characteristics and risk perceptions on their decision to treat/filter water as well as on their choice of main drinking water source. Because the two decisions may be jointly made by the household, a seemingly unrelated bivariate probit model was estimated. It turned out that treating non-piped water and using piped water as a main drinking water source were substitutes.

2014-06-01

Strategic alliances in Kenyan smallholder farming

Implementing and complying with standards and certification often increases costs for supply chain actors. These increased costs are caused by upgrading production, logistics and marketing needed to achieve compliance, and can lead to the exclusion of actors from the supply chain.

2013-11-11

Tenure security and ecosystem service provisioning in Kenya.

The chapter is a case study of tenure security and ecosystem service provisioning in Kenya. It provides support to a strong positive link between tenure security and investment in soil and water conservation. Evidence from 18 villages in rural Kenya suggests that household income tends to increase as a result of land conservation investments. This is particularly the case when land is registered in the name of the household head rather than another member of the extended family.

2013-11-06

A Non-Parametric Data Envelopment Analysis Approach for Improving Energy Efficiency of Grape Production

Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops with approximately 67.5 million tonnes produced each year and energy is an important element in modern grape productions as it heavily depends on fossil and other energy resources. Efficient use of these energies is a necessary step toward reducing environmental hazards, preventing destruction of natural resources and ensuring agricultural sustainability. Hence, identifying excessive use of energy as well as reducing energy resources is the main focus of this paper to optimize energy consumption in grape production.

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