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Ethiopia

2009-06-24

Structure and Functioning of Chickpea Markets in Ethiopia: Evidence Based on Analyses of Value Chains Linking Smallholders and Markets

Ethiopia is one of the sub-Saharan countries of Africa which liberalized their economies and developed poverty reduction strategies that underpin market-led strategies for broad-based agricultural development and economic growth. The country has successively adopted economic reform programs that aimed to open up the agricultural marketing system for active participation of the private sector. The liberalization of the Ethiopian grain economy has undergone successive adjustments such as lifting of restriction on private trade, rejection of government trading monopolies, removing of official price setting (Dadi et al. 1992; Gabre-Madhin 2001). The centralized grain marketing activities of the 1980s where pan-territorial input and output prices were determined by the central government have given way to liberalized agricultural markets. Market liberalization means input and output prices are determined by market forces. It has substantially increased participation of the private sector in grain marketing. The current policy environment attempts to promote production and marketing of high value agricultural products with a view to increase competitiveness in domestic, regional and international markets. This is because markets for agricultural products are changing rapidly with different market participants expanding rapidly in controlling the emerging market opportunities. In addition markets are changing in response to changing consumption behaviour towards high value agricultural products induced by rising per capita income, migration, urbanization and globalization.

2009-05-22

Cost of Land Degradation in Ethiopia: A Critical Review of Past Studies

This study will review the past studies of the cost of land degradation in Ethiopia, assess the major methodological and conceptual issues and problems existing in the different approaches, compare the findings across these studies considering the relative merits of the different approaches, and draw implications for policies and programs, as well as for future research related to land management in Ethiopia.

2009-03-01

Impacts of the Productive Safety Net Program on livestock and tree holdings of rural households in Ethiopia

In this paper, we study the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) in Ethiopia in order to see how it has affected households’ investment and disinvestment in productive assets. The PSNP is the largest currently operating social protection program in sub-Saharan Africa outside of South Africa, and its impacts and effectiveness are therefore important both in their own right and because they have implications for similar but smaller programs elsewhere.

2008-08-15

Determinants of Household Fuel Choice in Major Cities in Ethiopia

This paper examines the multiple fuel choices of urban households in major Ethiopian cities, using panel data collected in 2000 and 2004. The results suggest that as urban and rural households’ total expenditures rise, they use more types of fuels (including wood) and spend more on the fuels consumed. The results also support arguments that multiple fuel use better describes the fuel-choices of households in developing countries, as opposed to the idea that households switch to more expensive but cleaner fuels as incomes rise.

2008-06-09

Rural Livelihoods, Poverty,and the Millennium Development Goals: Evidence from Ethiopian Survey Data

This in-depth look at key development issues facing Ethiopian households in context of the Millenium Development Goals uses survey data from 2000, 2002, and 2005. Ethiopia is making progress, but household incomes are shockingly low and hugely varied. Assets could potentially help smooth consumption, but the current property rights structure where land is owned by the government excessively limits households' options and makes it impossible for land to serve as a true, functioning asset.

2008-06-05

Wealth and Time Preference in Rural Ethiopia

This study measured the discount rates of 262 farm households in the Ethiopian highlands, using a time preference experiment with real payoffs. In general, the median discount rate was very high and varied systematically with wealth and risk aversion. Our findings, however, warn that rates-of-time preferences (RTPs) and risk aversion reinforce each other and are easily confused. Because the RTPs were so high, what seem like profitable investments from the outside might not seem so from the farmers’ perspectives.

2008-04-08

Do Discount Rates Change over Time? Experimental Evidence from Ethiopia

This artefactual experiment in Ethiopia tested the hyperbolic discounting hypothesis by comparing time discounting over cash and consumption goods, using real payoffs. It found no difference in elicited time preferences between cash and consumption goods (tradable or final), which could be the result of missing markets in rural Ethiopia, and there was some evidence of time-inconsistent preferences.

2008-04-08

Market Imperfections and Farm Technology Adoption Decisions: A Case Study from the Highlands of Ethiopia

This examination of the impacts of market and institutional imperfections on technology adoption found that Ethiopian farmers’ decisions to adopt fertilizer significantly and negatively depended on whether they also adopted soil conservation, but not vice versa. Market imperfections were significant factors in explaining variations in decisions to adopt farm technology, such that relieving market imperfections could increase adoption of farm technologies.

2007-03-01

Sharecropping Efficiency in Ethiopia: Threats of Eviction and Kinship

We tested a theoretical model with the Marshallian inefficiency (H1) and threat of eviction (H2) hypotheses having opposite effects on land productivity on sharecropped plots. The model also assumes that kinship contracts may eliminate or reduce the Marshallian inefficiency (H3) and threat of eviction (H4) effects on land productivity.

2006-06-24

Seasonal and Inter-market Differences in Prices of Small Ruminants in Ethiopia

In the highlands of Ethiopia, livestock as an important component of the mixed farming system perform multiple functions providing high quality food, draft power and manure for crop production, and cash income. Field studies in different parts of the country in the 1980s showed that livestock account for 37-87% of total farm cash income of farmers, indicating the importance of livestock in rural livelihood, especially as one moves from mixed farming in the highlands to agropastoral systems on the highland-lowland margins (Gryseels, 1988).

2017-04-28

Sustainable energy transitions to support the Climate-Resilient Green Economy Strategy

Ethiopia aims to build a green economy and to follow a growth path that fosters sustainable development. Through the development of its Climate-Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) strategy, which is based on carbon-neutral growth, it envisions attaining middle-income status by 2025. Improving the productivity of the agricultural sector, protecting forests, expanding the coverage of electric power from renewable sources of energy and transitioning into modern and energy-efficient technologies are the main pillars of Ethiopia’s CRGE strategy. 

2015-04-10

Farmers are willing to pay for irrigation

How can charging money for something that was free be a good idea for poor farmers? It turns out that pricing irrigation water will help improve Ethiopian farmers’ efficiency in water use, increase agricultural and food production, and make the population less vulnerable to climate change. One unique contribution of environmental economists is that they collect data from the field and then calculate what natural resources are really worth.

2013-11-28

Ethiopian Communities Work Together to Conserve Forests

Forest conservation is getting more attention in Ethiopia, from the highest level of government to the community level. As part of these efforts, the EfD center in Ethiopia, Environmental Economics Policy Forum for Ethiopia (EEPFE), based at the Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), has been addressing the issue for long period of time and reflected its ideas in different forums.

2013-09-16

EfD Knowledge Aid

In a brief interview with UNU-Wider Wisdom Akpalu, Associate Professor of Economics at SUNY-Farmingdale, NY, shares his view on the effectiveness of development knowledge aid and the impact of the “Gothenburg mafia” on Africa. A maybe misleading expression which relates to Wisdom himself and his former PhD colleagues who studied at the Environmental Economics Unit of the Economics Department at Gothenburg University.

2013-02-14

Biofuels increase incomes of poor, EfD Ethiopia study shows

Contrary to the notion that increased biofuels production will undermine the food security of developing countries, EfD research results show that it can increase production of both food cereals and cash crops in Ethiopia. However, the effects vary by region.

2012-01-27

Climate Change hits Africa the hardest – what can be done?

Ethiopia risking average income cut of 30 percent The impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity may reduce the Ethiopian average income by as much as 30 percent within the next 50 years. This and other EfD findings on how climate change is hitting Africa, and in particular Ethiopia, were presented to 60 workshop participants from government, NGOs and multilateral organizations assembled in Addis Abeba. Strategies for adaptation, mitigation and a stronger position in international climate negotiations were discussed.

2010-01-29

Green accounting puts price on Ethiopian soil erosion and deforestation

Ethiopia loses large amounts of money due to deforestation and soil erosion. Recent research shows in monetary terms the value of the country’s natural resources and the costs of soil degradation. It also reveals that official government reports greatly underestimate the contribution of forests and soil resources to the national economy. A way for decision makers to address the problems is to adopt natural resource accounting.

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