The joint EfD Report 2013/14 showcases the work undertaken by the Environment for Development Initiative.
Biogas as a technology and the factors that affect its productivity have both been well studied. Research has previously been done to look at the impact of temperature, pH, organic loading rate, carbon-to-nitrogen ratios, microbial populations and hydraulic retention time on different scales of biogas operations. Small scale biogas installations, of which many millions have been constructed and seem to be performing well, have been chosen as the area of focus for this paper. Such systems allow energy generation on site, thereby eliminating the need for energy intensive transport.
Unobserved Household Differences Have a Significant Impact on Subjective Well-being, a Study Shows in Urban Ethiopia
Economic growth in industrialized countries over the past few decades did not result in improved subjective well-being (SWB) of citizens.
Biofuels Can Have a Win-win Outcome that Improves Smallholder Productivity and Increases Household Welfare
Rising prices of fossil fuels, together with apprehension about the environmental harm created by them, have resulted in increasing efforts to search for alternative energy sources such as biofuels. Biofuels production is still a debatable issue regarding the opportunities it creates and the challenges it poses.
Adaptation to climate change in Sub-Saharan agriculture: assessing the evidence and rethinking the drivers
In this paper, after a review of the evolution of the literature on climate change economics in agriculture, I present some evidence of the impact of different moments of the distribution of rainfall on farmers risk aversion.
Managing Environmental Risk in Presence of Climate Change: The Role of Adaptation in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia
This study investigates the impact of climate change adaptation on farm households’ downside risk exposure in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. The analysis relies on a moment-based specification of the stochastic production function. We use an empirical strategy that accounts for the heterogeneity in the decision on whether to adapt or not, and for unobservable characteristics of farmers and their farm.
Cities around the world generate substantial quantities of municipal solid waste, including organic residues. These organic residues can be managed productively and given value, or they can simply be wasted.
Except for the lowlands and pastoralist areas, mixed crop-livestock farming is the dominant farming type in Ethiopia. However, there have been few attempts to look into the economic impacts of climate change in the context of Ethiopia. Particularly, the role of livestock was disregarded in the previous studies.
Biofuels have received a great deal of attention globally, and many countries have embarked on producing biofuels, given the volatility and the recent all-time high of world oil prices.
Previous studies of poverty in developing countries have to a great extent focused on the characteristics of the household head and used these as proxies for the underlying ability of the household to generate income.
Unlike most studies of subjective well-being in developing countries, we use a fixed effects regression on three rounds of rich panel data to investigate the impact of relative standing on life satisfaction of respondents in urban Ethiopia.
Women's Participation in Ensuring Food Security at Household Level: Evidence from Ebinat District, Amhara Region, Ethiopia
Several activities are being undertaken to improve the livelihood of poor households by governments and NGOs in developing countries including Ethiopia. As women constitute about half of the total population in Ethiopia, it is important to see their role in improving household’s food security. This study provides an assessment of the role of women’s participation in ensuring food security at household level in Ebinat district, Amhara Region, Ethiopia.
Risk Factors of Osteoporosis Among Adults in Ethiopia, The Case of Tigrai Region: A Case Control Study
Osteoporosis is one of the most common public health problems affecting adults and elderlies in developing countries. This study aims to examine the potential risk factors of osteoporosis among adults in Tigrai, Northern Ethiopia.
Uncertainty about the future is an important determinant of well-being, especially in developing countries where financial markets and other market failures result in ineffective insurance mechanisms. However, separating the effects of future uncertainty from realised events, and then measuring the impact of uncertainty on utility, presents a number of empirical challenges.
Using data spanning 15 years, we study subjective and consumption poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite rapid economic growth and declining consumption poverty, subjective poverty remains largely unchanged.
The Impact of Land Certification on Tree Growing on Private Plots of Rural Households: Evidence from Ethiopia
This is a chapter in the book entitled 'Land Tenure Reform in Asia and Africa: Assessing Impacts on Poverty and Natural Resource Management'.
The authors analyze the impact of different adaptation strategies on crop net revenues in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia and they estimate a multinomial endogenous switching regression model of climate change adaptation and crop net revenues and implement a counterfactual analysis.
Environmental resource collection: implications for children's schooling in Tigray, northern Ethiopia
This paper examines the adverse effect of natural resources scarcity on children's schooling and the possible gender bias of resource collection work against girls' schooling. It uses cross-sectional data on 316 children aged 7–18 years collected from 120 rural households in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. The two-stage conditional maximum likelihood estimation technique is employed to take care of endogeneity between schooling and collection intensity decisions.
This book is about land tenure policies from an international perspective. It adds on the first book published by Holden and Otsuka entitled The Emergence of Land Markets in Africa: Assessing the Impacts on Poverty, Equity, and Efficiency (2009) in a much deeper way with a stronger and clearer focus on policy issues.
This is a PhD dissertation by Haileselassie Medhin and containing seven self-contained papers:
We use three rounds of a rich panel data set to investigate the determinants of household fuel choice and energy transition in urban Ethiopia. We observe that energy transition did not occur following economic growth in Ethiopia during the past decade.
Most studies suggest that environmental taxes are regressive, making them less attractive policy options. The general objective of this paper is to analyze and compare fossil fuel and food tax incidence in Ethiopia in different expenditure groups of households considering urban and rural parts of Ethiopia separately.
The adoption and diffusion of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) has become an important issue in the development-policy agenda for sub-Saharan Africa, especially as a way to tackle land degradation, low agricultural productivity and poverty. However, the adoption rates of SAPs remain below expected levels.
Cropping system diversification, conservation tillage and modern seed adoption in Ethiopia: Impacts on household income, agrochemical use and demand for labor
The type and combination of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) adopted have a significant effect on agricultural productivity and food security. This study develops a multinomial endogenous switching regression model of farmers' choice of combination of SAPs and impacts on maize income and agrochemicals and family labor use in rural Ethiopia.
Biofuels, Economic Growth, and the External Sector in Ethiopia: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis
In this study, we assess the economy-wide effects of biofuel investment in Ethiopia, with a focus on the external sector. The Government of Ethiopia has been revising its energy policy to switch from imported fossil oil to domestically produced biofuels, partly in response to climate change and partly in response to rising world oil prices, which leave oil-importing countries such as Ethiopia vulnerable to external oil price shocks.
Costs of Osteoporosis Related Fractures in Hospital Admitted Patients, Tigrai, Northern Ethiopia: A Retrospective Study
Background: Osteoporotic fractures are among the non-communicable diseases imposing a growing morbidity and economic burden upon developing countries which have limited resources. Despite several studies from other countries, in Ethiopia sufficient information regarding the cost of illness related to osteoporotic fractures is not available.
This report presents the Environment for Development Initiative (EfD), its members and work during 2012/13. For a free hardcopy, please send an email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
This report presents EfD Ethiopia/Environmental Economics Policy Forum for Ethiopia, its members and work during 2012/13. For a free hardcopy, please send an email to: email@example.com
Does community and household tree planting imply increased use of wood for fuel? Evidence from Ethiopia
As a result of many years of deforestation, fuelwood scarcity is a critical problem in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian government encouraged afforestation and tree growing at both the community and household levels as a policy to stem deforestation and degradation of agricultural lands. The rationale underlying the tree growing strategy is that some significant part of whatever is planted will be used as fuelwood, thereby reducing the demand for wood from native forestlands and use of crop residues and animal dung needed for soil improvement.
This study examines the relationship between property rights, defined by land tenure security and the strength of local-level institutions, and household's preferences for fuelwood source. A multinomial regression model applied to survey data collected in rural Ethiopia underpins the analysis. Results from the discrete choice model indicate that active local-level institutions increase household dependency on open access forests, while land security reduces open access forest dependence.
REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, “plus” afforestration) is a tool that supports forest carbon-enhancing approaches in the developing world in order to mitigate and hopefully reverse climate change. A key issue within REDD+ is to appropriately bring in the almost 25% of developing country forests that are effectively controlled by communities.
The world has experienced dramatic food price inflation in recent years, which sparked social unrest and riots in various developing countries. In this paper, we use a novel approach to measure the impact of food price inflation on subjective well-being of urban households in Ethiopia, a country which exhibited one of the highest rates of food price inflation during 2007–2008.
The authors use panel data from rural Ethiopia to investigate if participation in a safety net program enhances fertilizer adoption. Using a difference-in-difference estimator and inverse propensity score weighting they find that participation in Ethiopia’s food-for-work program increased fertilizer adoption.
The adoption of certain farm management practices, such as tree planting and soil and water conservation, can reduce exposure to weather shocks. However, in many countries the adoption of such risk mitigating measures is far from complete.
Water Resources Planning under Climate Change A “Real Options” Application to Investment Planning in the Blue Nile
This article develops a “real options” approach for planning new water resources infrastructure investments and their operating strategies in a world of climate change uncertainty. The approach is illustrated with an example: investments in large new multipurpose dam alternatives along the Blue Nile in Ethiopia.
Through the implementation of a choice experiment valuation exercise, this study set out to identify the set of community plantation attributes that impact the welfare of potential community forestry program participants.
Previous studies on improved cookstove adoption in developing countries use cross-sectional data, which makes it difficult to control for unobserved heterogeneity and investigate what happens to adoption over time.
The Distributive Effect and Food Security Implications of Biofuels Investment in Ethiopia: A CGE Analysis
In response to global opportunities and domestic challenges, Ethiopia is revising its energy policy to switch from high-cost imported fossil fuel to domestically produced biofuels. Currently, there are biofuel investment activities in different parts of the country to produce ethanol and biodiesel. However, there is no rigorous empirical study to assess impacts of such investments.
This series spans the globe presenting leading research in economics. International applications and examples of economic progress are invaluable in a troubled world with economic booms bursting like so many penny balloons.
This report presents EfD Ethiopia/Environmental Economics Policy Forum for Ethiopia, its members and work during 2011/12. For a free hardcopy, please send an email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Magnitude and Pattern of Osteoporotic Fractures among Adults in Tigrai, Ethiopia: A Retrospective Hospital Based
Osteoporotic fractures are devastating public health problems due to significant morbidity, mortality, and the socioeconomic burden. In Ethiopia, the weight of such fractures is often underestimated due to lack of epidemiological data. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude and pattern of osteoporotic fractures among adults admitted to zonal hospitals in Tigrai, North Ethiopia.
This paper concerns the patterns of food crop choice in a multicropping setting, in which production risk considerations and rainfall uncertainty are likely to be critical factors.
So far Africa has benefited little from climate finance as compared to other continents with emerging economies. Climate projects are distributed unevenly across regions as well as among developing countries. This is partly due to lack of trained manpower in some of these countries and too restrictive criteria of most of the climate fund projects and programs that are designed to the disadvantage of Africa.
This paper assesses the impact of a landcertification program in Ethiopia on the level of interpersonal and institutional trust among households in the Amhara region. The landcertification program is designed to enhance landtenure security of farmers, by maintaining (egalitarian) status quo land distribution and equity concerns.
This paper presents an empirical analysis of the role of different climate change adaptation strategies in supporting food productivity in Ethiopia. The analysis relies on unique primary survey data on 1000 farms producing cereal crops in the Nile Basin, Ethiopia.
The heavy dependence and inefficient utilization of biomass resources have contributed to the depletion of forest resources in Ethiopia, while the use of traditional cooking technology has also been linked to indoor air pollution and poor health. In response, the government and other institutions have pushed for the adoption of new cooking technologies, with limited success.
We study rural employment transitions in Ethiopia between farming and both low- and high-return nonfarm employment.
This paper analyses the ‘ripple’ effect of house prices in large-, medium- and small-sized houses of five major metropolitan areas of South Africa—namely, Cape Town, Durban Unicity, Greater Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth/Uitenhage and Pretoria—based on available quarterly data covering the period of 1966:Q1 to 2010:Q1.
What are the impacts of climate change on the Ethiopian economy?
Stabilizing Price Incentives for Staple Grain Producers in the Context of Broader Agricultural Policies: Debates and Country experiences
Price uncertainty is a major constraint to a sustained increase in staple food production. This paper reviews the trends and patterns of addressing this age-old problem over the course of the past several decades.