The aim of this project is to integrate environmental, economic and equity considerations into decision making around livestock intensification. To achieve this, we take an innovative step forward in the use of analytical tools for the management of environmental and livelihood change in developing country contexts.
The research project aims to assess taxes, subsidies, fees, and charges in connection with natural resources such as petroleum products, forest resources, fisheries and mining in Ethiopia. The contribution of environmental taxes, fees and charges to domestic revenue collection and their relative share in GDP will be reviewed.
The project analyzes the determinants of household tree planting.
Agricultural values of the wild coffee genetic resource in Ethiopia: implication for conservation of the wild coffee forest in southwestern Ethiopia
This paper is focuses on assessing the agricultural value of wild coffee genetic resource in view of local coffee producers. Specifically, it is to estimate their demand for improved coffee planting material with respect to coffee production constraints the farmers are facing. Three sites are considered based on variability in coffee production systems. It includes the forest communities keeping wild coffee types, semi-forest coffee types, and areas where coffee production is exclusively dependent upon improved types.
Climate Change and Agricultural Productivity in Ethiopia: Vulnerability, Impact, Adaptation Options and Beyond
By broadening/extending the knowledge base of climate change and agricultural productivity in Ethiopia and enhancing informed policy/decision making at various levels, this research will contribute to poverty reduction and environmental sustainability.
Goal of this project is to contribute to the Ethiopian government’s efforts in identifying and prioritizing pro-poor policies and climate smart strategies in building climate-resilient communities and promoting a ‘green welfare’ in the country.
The project aims to help achieve agriculture/food security, and poverty reduction through broadening our understanding of the impacts of the SLM program and informed policy/ decision making processes.
The goal of this project is to contribute to the fulfilment of the Ethiopian government’s efforts in reducing GHG emissions through cost effective instruments. It helps meet the target set in the GTP which explicitly acknowledges the role of building green economy for sustainability of growth as well as in the CRGE strategy which aims at reducing GHG emissions.
Adaptation to Increase Resilience to Climate Change in Ethiopian Agriculture: Empowering Farmers to Adopt the Right Water Management Technologies for their Farms
Climate change in Ethiopia will not only increase rainfall variability and lead to more frequent droughts and higher risk of rain generated floods, it will also continue to intensify the degradation of soil fertility that causes agricultural productivity to decline. Adaptation measures that build upon improved water management and enhance soil fertility are fundamental in boosting overall resilience to climate change in the Blue Nile Basin.
Despite the centrality of African parks and other protected areas to nature-based tourism, they capture only a fraction of its value. For this reason, national parks and other protected areas have mostly relied on fiscal transfers from the state to fund their conservation activities.
Forest Sector Institutional Reform and REDD+ in Ethiopia: Making Participatory Forest Management Pro-Poor
This is a non-EfD project that aims to evaluate how institutions can be crafted within both CCFs and REDD+ systems to achieve climate change, livelihood and poverty reduction goals using focus groups, field-based lab experiments and field-based stated preference experiments.
This research aims to enhance informed policy-making and sustainable management of natural resources in Ethiopia through furthering our understanding of the factors that contribute to success (better outcome in forest commons). The research intends to investigate the interplay between the user characteristics, resource characteristics, and the institutional regime as they determine better forest outcome at a more deeper level using household level dataset.
Adaptation to climate change in Ethiopia : The potential role of sustainable land management practices
This research project will contribute to sustainability and poverty reduction agenda as SLM practices can enable farmers to become resilient to climate change by improving ecosystem services and functions, increasing agricultural productivity and enhancing food security. Such practices could also help mitigate climate change which is an important added advantage.
As a result of growing demand for electricity and recognizing the critical role played by the energy sector in the economic growth and development process, the Government of Ethiopia has already embarked on large scale hydroelectricity projects in view of developing renewable and sustainable energy sources. The goal of this project is to contribute to the fulfillment of these efforts in expanding modern energy access and reducing energy poverty through accelerating the growth of the economy.
Economic valuation (pricing), institutions, and water use efficiency in smallholder irrigation systems in Ethiopia
Overall, the study aims to enhance environmental sustainability, agriculture/food security and poverty reduction, through suggesting mechanism for irrigation water pricing and informed policy/ decision making.
Given the volatility of world oil prices and the recent all time high, which increased their popularity, bio-fuels have received a great deal of attention globally. The central questions of interest include whether this will have a positive or a negative impact on smallholder farmers and people living in rural areas, as more agricultural land will be used for biofuels production? And what is the effect of these large scale biofuels investments on growth and poverty reduction endeavors of poor countries?
Natural resources, agriculture and human activities are highly interrelated in most developing countries in general and Ethiopia in particular. Land clearing for agriculture, increase in demand for fuel wood and construction material, illegal settlement within forests, logging and the expansion of illegal trade have resulted in the deterioration of forest resources, reduction of biodiversity, incidences of soil erosion and land degradation in the country. These will increase the demand for family labor to provide essential resources such as fuel wood, fodder, and water for humans and livestock.
Local Common Property Systems in Ethiopia: An Empirical Analysis of the Link between User Characteristics, Resource Characteristics and Institutional Regime
Renewable natural resources such as forests, fisheries, grazing lands, soils, groundwater, etc, most of which fall under the category of common pool resources, constitute a significant part of our planet. Common-pool resources (CPRs) constitute important sources of livelihoods to many people in developing countries including timber, fuelwood, grazing, irrigation water, and domestic water.
Empirical evidences from developing countries indicate that forest products play a significant role in rural livelihoods, particularly for the rural poor. Forests provide benefits in the form of wood, food, income, and watershed protection which enable people to secure stable and adequate food supply. However, deforestation and the resulting environmental degradation is a major problem in most African countries including Ethiopia. This is considered as one of the key factors challenging food security, community livelihood and sustainable development. Reports on the forest resources of Ethiopia are dominated by the alarming deforestation that goes on unabated and at an accelerating rate. The magnitude of deforestation and land degradation by far exceeds the conservation activities being carried out.
In this research project EfD aims to examine the impact of climate change on agriculture using Ricardian approach. Moreover, the impact of climate change on the Ethiopian economy using CGE model will be analyzed.
Renewable natural resources such as forests, fisheries, grazing lands, soils, groundwater, etc, most of which fall under the category of common pool resources, constitute a significant part of our planet. Common property resources constitute important sources of livelihoods to many people in developing countries including timber, fuelwood, grazing, irrigation water, and domestic water.
This research will examine the impact of adaptation strategies on farmers’ food production. We will investigate whether there are differences in the food production functions of farm households that adopted adaptation strategies and those that did not adopt.
Impact of Biofuel Investment on the External Sector, Growth and Poverty Reduction in Ethiopia: CGE Analysis
Given the volatility of world oil prices and the recent all time high, which increased their popularity, bio-fuels have received a great deal of attention globally. The central question in here is whether this will have a positive or a negative impact on smallholder farmers and people living in rural areas, as more agricultural land will be used for biofuels production? While some designate it as a crime against humanity, some others have argued that a greater production of biofuels will not necessarily be harmful for the poor and that they can become more food secure with the adoption of proper production technology.
The proposed project seeks to contribute substantively to climate change and community forest management policies and advance the literature by analyzing the relationship between common property forest management (CPFM) in Ethiopia and climate policy within the context of the UN Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD) and proposing instruments for channeling REDD benefits to households.
Impact of land certification on tree growing on private plots of rural households: evidence from the Amhara region of Ethiopia
Sustained agricultural growth is important for poverty reduction in Africa due to the significant role of the sector in the continent. The performance of agriculture depends, among others, on appropriate investment in the sector and the latter is constrained by a multitude of factors including land tenure insecurity. In the presence of tenure insecurity, the risk of losing land will create a disincentive to undertake investments when the present value of the productivity benefits from such investments would, under full tenure security, be higher than their cost.
Given the volatility of world oil prices and the recent all time high, which increased their popularity, bio-fuels have received a great deal of attention globally. The central question in here is whether this will have a positive or a negative impact on smallholder farmers and people living in rural areas, as more agricultural land will be used for biofuels production?
In this research project EfD aims to draw lessons from land reforms in several Asian and African countries. The findings will be presented in a book edited by Professors Stein Holden and Keijiro Otsuka and titled "Land Reforms in Asia and Africa - Impacts on Poverty and Natural Resource Management".
Most of the studies so far/literature on rural fuel demand and supply, in general, and those on Ethiopia, in particular, are apparently static, with no time dimension.
Deforestation in Ethiopia has resulted in growing fuel scarcity and higher firewood prices in urban centers. Urban centers have long been dependent on the rural hinterlands for their fuel. The use of biofuels of rural origin covers about 90% of the urban fuel use. The dependence of urban centers on their rural hinterlands has aggravated the deforestation. One response to reducing the pressure of urban centers on their rural hinterlands could be through substitutions between or switching from one fuel to another, i.e., through energy transition. For example, through substituting away or switching from fuelwood to electricity. Electricity as cooking fuel is cleaner and do not cause deforestation.
Production risk is one of the quintessential features of agriculture in Ethiopia. Unpredictable weather can expose farm households to significant production uncertainty and serious hardship. Under harsh climatic and agro-ecological conditions, this can result in food insecurity and famine. During the last 40 years, Ethiopia has experienced many severe droughts leading to production levels that fell short of basic subsistence levels for many farm households (REST and NORAGRIC 1995, p. 137). Harvest failure due to drought is the most important cause of risk-related hardship of Ethiopian rural households, with adverse effects on farm household consumption and welfare (Dercon 2004, 2005). When facing prospects of harvest failure, ex ante farm production decisions, such as crop or varietal choice, remain a part of risk-management strategies (Just and Candler 1985; Fafchamps 1992; Chavas and Holt 1996; Dercon 1996; Smale et al. 1998). In dry environments, farmers’ reliance on crop biodiversity is an essential part of ex ante risk management strategies. Thus, the conservation of relevant germplasms is instrumental to hedge against weather related uncertainty.
Ethiopia’s forest cover is estimated at less than 4% of the total land area of about 1 million km2. The consequences of deforestation and forest degradation include reduced agricultural production and decreased household welfare. The Ethiopian government promulgated a forest proclamation and approved the first forest policy in 2007. In its recent comprehensive plan referred to as Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP), the government also indicated its plan to increase forest cover from about 4% to 9% over a period of five years. The reality on the ground suggests that there is continuing deforestation and mismanagement of existing forests. The government has acknowledged in its forestry laws and regulations that depletion of these resources have resulted in reduced agricultural productivity and subsequently reduced quality of life of the rural people. Moreover, frequent restructuring of the main government body responsible for natural resources in general and forestry in particular meant different levels of attention paid to the sector with its implications for staffing and continuity of programs.
The broad objective of this project is to examine the role of forests/trees in the livelihoods of households at varying forest management regimes.
Land management technology adoption: production risk, risk aversion and crop productivity in Ethiopia: A comparison study
The agriculture sector in Ethiopia is characterized by low external input use and low productivity. It is also characterized by high nutrient depletion and soil erosion that limit farmers’ ability to increase agricultural production and reduce poverty and food insecurity.
Food insecurity is a common problem in Ethiopia because of natural (e.g. drought, flood) and idiosyncratic risks (e.g. illness). To reduce the welfare impact of risks, households use different risk coping strategies such as diversification of crops, different crop management practices, and informal risk sharing mechanisms.
This project is an initiative by TerrAfrica at the World Bank to provide analytical contributions to the mobilization of additional financial resources for Sustainable Land Management in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Poverty and Land Degradation in Ethiopia: How to Reverse the Spiral?
Biomass fuel consumption and dung use as fertilizer: some evidence from rural households in the Amhara region of Ethiopia
The two core objectives of the project are: 1. To examine the factors that determine woody biomass and dung consumption as fuel sources. 2. To examine the factors that determine farmers’ adoption and intensity of use of dung as fertilizer.
This project attempts to examine the determinants of fuel choice. Both the demand for specific fuel types consumed by households and the determinants of the choice of fuel-mix such as solid vs non-solid fuels.
The main objective of this project is to identify and analyze effects of land certification on land-related investments and rural land markets.
This project aims to achieve two objectives: to identify the determinants of common property forest management (CPFM) and estimate the effects of CPFM on the planting of trees on-farm in the Ethiopian Highlands.
Read about what EfD centers around the world have been up to during the last year in terms of research highlights and how our research relate to the Sustainable Development Goals.
The Environment and Climate Research Center aims to support green and climateresilient development. The center is based at the Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI). The other two partner organizations behind the center are the Environment for Development Initiative (EfD) and the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI).
This paper examines the determinants of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises’ adoption of energy efficiency practices and technologies, using cross-sectional data of 8174 randomly selected enterprises from ten major urban areas of Ethiopia. For identification, the study relys on a generalized ordered probit model. The findings reveal that, as the size of the enterprise becomes larger, it is more likely the enterprise will undertake energy efficient practices and technologies.
Climate-Smart Agricultural Practices and Welfare of Rural Smallholders in Ethiopia: Does Planting Method Matter?
The purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence on the impact of a climate-smart agricultural practice (row planting) on the welfare of rural households. Data collected from 260 households in the North Wollo Zone of Ethiopia were analyzed using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) and a semi-parametric Local Instrumental Variable (LIV) version of the generalized Roy model. The results from the PSM revealed that adoption of row planting technology has a positive and significant impact on per capita consumption and on crop income per hectare.
Do safety net transfers improve household diets and reduce undernutrition? Evidence from rural Ethiopia
This paper examines the impact of the Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Program on household dietary diversity and child nutrition using both waves of the Ethiopian Socioeconomic Survey. The study uses various methodologies, to estimate the effect of the program on household dietary diversity, it relys on the exogeneity of the change in the amount of money that kebeles (lowest administrative unit) have available to allocate among program beneficiaries, which depends on donor support. It presents evidence that there is a discrete jump in the kebeles’ allocated budget between 2012 and 2014.
This study use the concepts of riskscapes and risk governance to analyze the tensions between land use for food (farms) and energy (dams) in South West Ethiopia. It analyzes the linkage between risk perception, risk assessment and risk management for local and non-local actors. The study distinguish, after empirical analysis, as main riskscapes the riskscapes of landlessness, food and energy insecurity and siltation.
Climate change adaptation: a study of multiple climate-smart practices in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia
Improving farm-level use of multiple climate change adaptation strategies is essential for improving household food security, particularly against a backdrop of a high risk of climatic shocks. However, the empirical foundation for understanding how farm households choose multiple climate-smart practices is far from being established. In this paper, the effects of household, farm and climatic factors on farmers’ decisions to use multiple adaptation practices are analysed.
We use a dynamic system GMM regression on ve rounds of panel data to estimate the impact of international remittances on consumption of urban Ethiopian households, who spend more than 70% of their consumption budget on food. Results suggest that international remittances play a signi cant role in augmenting household consumption. A 1% increase in remittances from abroad leads to a 0.10% increase in household consumption.
This research investigates the profitability of bioethanol production in Africa, taking Ethiopia as a case in point, and suggests an oil price threshold beyond which biofuels may be profitable. Specifically, the study analyzes the viability of producing bioethanol from molasses in the context of Ethiopia, using data from a biofuels investment survey by EEPFE/EDRI in 2010. The study draw on investment theory as underlying conceptual framework and employ unit cost analysis for the empirical analysis.
Continued high reliance on traditional biomass fuels and stoves in developing countries gives rise to several human health, environmental, and livelihood issues. However solid data on the performance of improved biomass cooking stoves remains scarce. This paper provides controlled cooking test (CCT) evidence on fuel savings from a promising improved biomass cooking stove in Ethiopia. The stove is called Mirt(meaning “best” in Amharic), and is used to bake injera, the staple food in much of Ethiopia. Injera preparation accounts for about half the primary energy consumed in the country.