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Optimal environmental road pricing

An optimal first-best road charge should not only be differentiated with respect to factors that affect the direct external environmental and time costs from the road-user himself.


An economic comparison of the commercial and recreational linefisheries in Namibia

The most important Namibian linefish species, the silver kob Argyrosomus inodorus, is currently heavily exploited, and in order to ensure its survival catch restrictions are being introduced. However, kob are exploited both by recreational anglers and by commercial vessels, and it is important to examine the economics of these fisheries in order to determine where catch restrictions will do the least harm to the economy.


Structural shifts in Namibian energy use: An input-output approach

This paper uses the input-output methodology known as structural decomposition analysis to discuss Namibian energy use. And the paper makes an additional contribution to the literature on structural decomposition analysis by showing that the hybrid units approach, which has frequently been used in other structural decomposition analyses and in other types of energy studies, is in fact unsuitable at least for this type of analysis.


Smokers’ expectations to quit smoking

We investigate the effectiveness of different smoking policies on smokers’ expectations to quit smoking using a choice experiment on a sample of smokers identified within the World Health Organization (WHO) MONICA Project.


The HIPC initiative and free trade in tobacco – a comparison of effects on the Malawi economy using a CGE model

The Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative is intended to improve the situation of the poorest developing countries by reducing their debt burden and by permitting increased spending on education and health services. However, at the same time the developed countries funding the HIPC initiative retain agricultural policies that hinder exports form the developing countries in those sectors where they have comparative advantages.


Implicit water pricing in Namibian farmland markets

Groundwater can augment total agricultural water supply in areas where rainfall is persistently low, but can also function as a buffer source of water in areas where rainfall is high but variable. In arid countries it is important to examine which of these functions dominates, as this has implications for water policy.


Hedonic pricing in Windhoek townships

This study applies the hedonic pricing model to property sales in the township areas in Windhoek, the capital city of Namibia, where municipal authorities have pursued a programme of selling plots of land to settlers in order to encourage them into a formalized economic situation.


Environmental Taxes in Europe

This paper provides an overview and a discussion of environmental taxes in Europe. On the whole, most European countries have fairly high levels of environmental taxation – at least compared to the US.


Woodfuels, Livelihoods, and Policy Interventions: Changing Perspectives

In the 1970s, it appeared that fuelwood use was growing rapidly, and this could have major adverse impacts on the resource and poor users. By the mid-1980s, revised assessments indicated that there was less of a problem than had been foreseen, and much less of a need for forestry interventions to maintain supplies.


Fuelwood Revisited: What Has Changed in the Last Decade?

The impact of woodfuel collection on forests has been controversial and its role in rural livelihoods and deforestation is the subject of considerable debate. This study reviews the main dimensions of this discourse and the resulting responses form the forestry sector.


Essays on Environmental Policy-Making in Developing Countries: Applications to Costa Rica

This thesis consists of five papers dealing with fairly heterogeneous issues, based on the problems or topics analyzed, but also based on the methodologies used to approach them. The overriding motives are the design of environmental policies in the context of a typical developing country (where Costa Rica is used as a representative of such countries), and the study and application of techniques that can provide the necessary information for policy-making.


Incentive-based regulation of CO2 emissions from international aviation

We explore the possibilities of using incentive-based environmental regulations of CO2 emissions from international civil aviation. In theory incentive-based instruments such as an emission charge or a tradable emission permit system are better regulations than so-called command-and-control regulations such as emission limits or technology standards.


Environmental Charges in Airline Markets

Over the last two decades many airline markets have been deregulated, resulting in increased competition and use of different types of networks. At the same time there has been an intense discussion on environmental taxation of airline traffic. It is likely that an optimal environmental tax and the effects of a tax differ between different types of aviation markets.


Decomposition of Namibian energy intensity

This paper uses decomposition methodology to study whether the changes in Namibian aggregate energy intensity have been structurally driven – as in most developing countries studied to date – or whether they have been driven by changes in energy efficiency at the sectoral level.


Energy use in the Namibian economy from 1995 to 1998

As part of a natural resource accounting project being undertaken in Namibia, energy accounts have been compiled and are used to analyse energy use by different economic sectors. Households account for most energy use, especially of traditional fuels, and many households continue to rely on Ž rewood even when they have access to electricity.


Trade, GMOs, and Environmental Risk: Are Policies Likely to Improve Welfare?

Food with inputs from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has met considerable skepticism among European Union (EU) consumers. The EU import ban on GM food has triggered a great deal of controversy and has been partly replaced by a mandatory labeling scheme. Although there is no measure in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that directly addresses the use of product labeling, WTO and others have been skeptical to mandatory product labeling on the grounds that they may be used as hidden protectionism hampering global welfare. This study has two foci. First, we examine how different policies for the production and use of GMOs might influence the market outcome in consumer food markets. Second, we evaluate the welfare effects of the policy measures. We find that mandatory labeling often increases domestic welfare and, may also enhance global welfare. On the other hand, a trade ban is more likely to decrease global welfare.