An optimal first-best road charge should not only be differentiated with respect to factors that affect the direct external environmental and time costs from the road-user himself.
The choice of domestic fuel is a matter of great concern for households and policy makers in India. This paper investigates the demand for domestic fuels when households face four choices: Fuelwood, Coal, Kerosene and LPG.
We use firm-level data to study the adoption of Environmental Management Practices (EMPs) in the most polluting industrial sectors in Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia during the 1990 – 1998 period when these countries were in a transition away from a centrally planned economy.
In two experiments on the choice of consumer goods, the estimated marginal willingness to pay for food is found to be lower in the survey version with cheap talk.
Welfare Implication of Community Forest Plantations in Developing Countries: The Orissa Social Forestry Project
Community forest plantations are a common intervention in developing countries. We use household and remote sensing data from Orissa, India, to estimate welfare effects of community forest plantations, in terms of the value of decreased collection times plantations afford users.
The proportion of money sent, which is typically assumed to reflect trust, decreased significantly as the stake size was increased in a trust game conducted in rural Bangladesh.
The most important Namibian linefish species, the silver kob Argyrosomus inodorus, is currently heavily exploited, and in order to ensure its survival catch restrictions are being introduced. However, kob are exploited both by recreational anglers and by commercial vessels, and it is important to examine the economics of these fisheries in order to determine where catch restrictions will do the least harm to the economy.
This paper reports the results of a stated preference survey in the highlands of Ethiopia where the farmers are given a choice between an agricultural extension package and a local public - representing two major developing strategies. The study finds that a majority of people prefers the public good.
Many argue that it is socially inefficient to use distributional weights in cost-benefit analysis, and that doing so implies large inefficiency losses, when distributional matters can be dealt with through income taxation, instead.
Individuals’ preferences for risk and inequality are measured through choices between imagined societies and lotteries.
This paper uses the input-output methodology known as structural decomposition analysis to discuss Namibian energy use. And the paper makes an additional contribution to the literature on structural decomposition analysis by showing that the hybrid units approach, which has frequently been used in other structural decomposition analyses and in other types of energy studies, is in fact unsuitable at least for this type of analysis.
This paper employs a choice experiment to obtain consumer preferences and willingness to pay for food product quality attributes currently not available in Sweden.
We find, using survey-experimental methods, that most individuals are concerned with both relative income and relative consumption of particular goods. The degree of concern varies in the expected direction depending on the properties of the good.
We investigate the effectiveness of different smoking policies on smokers’ expectations to quit smoking using a choice experiment on a sample of smokers identified within the World Health Organization (WHO) MONICA Project.
The Swedish coastal zone is a scene of conflicting interests about various goods and services provided by nature. Open-access conditions and the public nature of many services increase the difficulty in resolving these conflicts.
Potential monopoly rents from international wildlife tourism: An example from Uganda’s gorilla tourism
The economic benefits many African countries derive from international wildlife tourism are very few, especially when viewed from existing potentials in terms of resources and uniqueness. African wildlife tourism has natural barriers to entry and thus is basically a monopolistic market.
Global environmental problems are often assumed to imply extensive inefficiencies since there is no global authority corresponding to the government at a national level.
Contingent valuation of community plantations in Ethiopia: a look into value elicitation formats and intra-household preference variations
This paper is an application of the contingent valuation method on community plantations in the highlands of Ethiopia. A discrete-continuous elicitation format was applied.
Eishers are risk-averse according to most empirical studies, while expected-utility theory predicts risk neutrality even for sizable stakes.
This paper analyzes the marginal willingness to pay for changes in noise levels related to changes in the volume of flight movements at a city airport in Stockholm, Sweden, by using a choice experiment.
The HIPC initiative and free trade in tobacco – a comparison of effects on the Malawi economy using a CGE model
The Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative is intended to improve the situation of the poorest developing countries by reducing their debt burden and by permitting increased spending on education and health services. However, at the same time the developed countries funding the HIPC initiative retain agricultural policies that hinder exports form the developing countries in those sectors where they have comparative advantages.
This paper analyzes the welfare effects of improved health status through increased water quality using a choice experiment. The survey was administered to a random sample of households in metropolitan Cairo, Egypt.
Using a contingent valuation survey, people’s willingness to pay for a given risk reduction is found to be much larger, consistently more than two times as large, when traveling by air compared to by taxi.
We present a model of fishers’ gear choice, which allows for heterogeneity both in production technology and risk preferences and apply it on a panel of Swedish trawlers.
Groundwater can augment total agricultural water supply in areas where rainfall is persistently low, but can also function as a buffer source of water in areas where rainfall is high but variable. In arid countries it is important to examine which of these functions dominates, as this has implications for water policy.
The interest for wetlands is increasing, not only because of the possibility of a cost-efficient uptake of nutrients, but also because wetlands can be designed to provide other services. What values that are supplied depend largely on the design.
The results from a survey of Swedish commercial fishers on regulation compliance and attitudes to control and restrictions are reported. According to the responding fishers, 90% of all Swedish catches are reported, in spite of limited control efforts.
Social inequality aversion is measured through a veil-of-ignorance experiment with Indian students. The median relative risk aversion is found to be quite high, about 3, and independent caste.
Policy implications and analysis of the determinants of travel mode choice: an application of choice experiments to metropolitan Costa Rica
The main objective of thus study is to contribute to the design of policies dealing with the problems of congestion and air pollution in the urban context of a typical developing country.
This study applies the hedonic pricing model to property sales in the township areas in Windhoek, the capital city of Namibia, where municipal authorities have pursued a programme of selling plots of land to settlers in order to encourage them into a formalized economic situation.
This paper discusses different design techniques for stated preference surveys in health economic applications. In particular, we focus on different design techniques, i.e. how to combine the attribute levels into alternatives and choice sets, for choice experiments.
Choice experiments are becoming ever more frequently applied to the valuation of non-market goods. The purpose of this paper is to give a detailed description of the steps involved in a choice experiment and to discuss the use of this method for valuing non-market goods.
This paper provides an overview and a discussion of environmental taxes in Europe. On the whole, most European countries have fairly high levels of environmental taxation – at least compared to the US.
This paper undertakes a social cost-benefit analysis regarding an increase in the number of electric vehicles in the Swedish transport sector by year 2010.
In the 1970s, it appeared that fuelwood use was growing rapidly, and this could have major adverse impacts on the resource and poor users. By the mid-1980s, revised assessments indicated that there was less of a problem than had been foreseen, and much less of a need for forestry interventions to maintain supplies.
This paper reports on a survey carried out among visitors to Etosha, Namibia, in May 2002. We use the contingent valuation method to estimate foreign tourists’ willingness to pay for visiting the park.
The impact of woodfuel collection on forests has been controversial and its role in rural livelihoods and deforestation is the subject of considerable debate. This study reviews the main dimensions of this discourse and the resulting responses form the forestry sector.
This thesis consists of five papers dealing with fairly heterogeneous issues, based on the problems or topics analyzed, but also based on the methodologies used to approach them. The overriding motives are the design of environmental policies in the context of a typical developing country (where Costa Rica is used as a representative of such countries), and the study and application of techniques that can provide the necessary information for policy-making.
We explore the possibilities of using incentive-based environmental regulations of CO2 emissions from international civil aviation. In theory incentive-based instruments such as an emission charge or a tradable emission permit system are better regulations than so-called command-and-control regulations such as emission limits or technology standards.
CASE STUDY 2: Zimbabwe: Economy-Wide Policies And Deforestation: Applied General Equilibrium Modelling
This chapter of the book uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) approach to capture the different interactions and their influence on the consequent impact of policy reforms on the economy and deforestation in Namibia.
Individuals' aversion to risk and inequality, and their concern for relative standing, are measured through experimental choices between hypothetical societies.
Over the last two decades many airline markets have been deregulated, resulting in increased competition and use of different types of networks. At the same time there has been an intense discussion on environmental taxation of airline traffic. It is likely that an optimal environmental tax and the effects of a tax differ between different types of aviation markets.
In Orissa 100 thousand ha of village plantations were established from 1985 to 1992 as an aid project to support the subsistence needs of rural poor and to relieve heavy pressure on the natural forests. The aim of this paper is to examine the welfare and environmental effects of these village plantations.
This paper uses decomposition methodology to study whether the changes in Namibian aggregate energy intensity have been structurally driven – as in most developing countries studied to date – or whether they have been driven by changes in energy efficiency at the sectoral level.
Growth of Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus 1758), in the Skagerrak, estimated from tagging experiments and length frequency data
Parameter values for the von Bertalanffy growth model are estimated for Nephrops norvegicus in the Skagerrak on the Swedish west coast using analysis of length frequency distribution from commercial catches and tag-recapture data.
As part of a natural resource accounting project being undertaken in Namibia, energy accounts have been compiled and are used to analyse energy use by different economic sectors. Households account for most energy use, especially of traditional fuels, and many households continue to rely on rewood even when they have access to electricity.
Contingent valuation in project planning and evaluation: the case of social forestry in Orissa, India
There have been few applications of the contingent valuation method (CVM) to forests in developing countries. When applied, the method is seldom utilized to improve the implementation of development projects.
Food with inputs from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has met considerable skepticism among European Union (EU) consumers. The EU import ban on GM food has triggered a great deal of controversy and has been partly replaced by a mandatory labeling scheme. Although there is no measure in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that directly addresses the use of product labeling, WTO and others have been skeptical to mandatory product labeling on the grounds that they may be used as hidden protectionism hampering global welfare. This study has two foci. First, we examine how different policies for the production and use of GMOs might influence the market outcome in consumer food markets. Second, we evaluate the welfare effects of the policy measures. We find that mandatory labeling often increases domestic welfare and, may also enhance global welfare. On the other hand, a trade ban is more likely to decrease global welfare.
Spatial Variability and Disincentives to Harvest: Deforestation and Fuelwood Collection in South Asia
A major strategy to combat deforestation caused by household fuel collection has been the establishment of plantations, especially in India.
Do Hypothetical and Actual Marginal Willingness to Pay Differ in Choice Experiments? Application to the Valuation of the Environment
In this paper we test the validity of choice experiments with donations for environmental projects.