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The Role of Information in Changing Tourist Behavioral Preferences at the Humboldt Penguin Reserve in Northern Chile

With considerable focus on ecotourism's potential to contribute to conservation, it is increasingly important to understand the implications of ecological information in triggering sustainability-relevant attitudes and actions. This study assesses whether people who have ecological information regarding the negative impact of their recreational behavior on penguins’ stress will choose to remain farther away from the penguins to avoid that impact although this option will reduce the personal benefits of their tourism experience.


Water Variability and the Economic Impacts on Small-Scale Farmers. A Farm Risk-Based Integrated Modelling Approach

Strengthening the planning of hydrological resources to optimize the use ofwater in agriculture is a key adaptation measure of the Chilean agricultural sector to cope with future climate change. To address this challenge, decision-makers call for tools capable of representing farmers’ behaviours under the likely stresses generated by future climate conditions. In this context, of special concern are the effects of water variability on small-scale farmers, who commonly operate with narrow profit margins and who lack access to financial resources and technological knowledge.


Interactions between CAP Agricultural and Agri-Environmental Subsidies and Their Effects on the Uptake of Organic Farming

We analyze the effects of the interactions that the two pillars of the European Union Common Agricultural Policy—market support and rural development—have on farmers’ uptake of organic farming practices. Special attention is given to the 2003 reform, which substantially altered the relative importance of the two types of support by decoupling direct agricultural payments from the production of a specific crop. In our empirical analysis we study the case of Sweden, making use of the variation in the timing of farmers’ decisions regarding participation in support programs.


The regulatory choice of noncompliance in the lab: effect on quantities, prices, and implications for the design of a cost-effective policy

Recent theoretical developments show the conditions under which it is cost effective for the regulator to induce perfect compliance in cap and trade programs. These conditions are based on the ability that a regulator with perfect information has to induce the firms to emit any desired level with different combinations of the number of permits supplied to the market and the monitoring probability, assuming that firms are expected profits maximizers. In this paper we test this hypothesis with a series of laboratory experiments.


Spillover Effects from a Social Information Campaign

We investigate whether a social information campaign aimed at reducing water use causes a spillover effect on the use of electricity. On average, water use decreased by 6 percent for a treatment group for whom we conducted a social information campaign on their use of water, compared with that of a control group. We identify a spillover effect on electricity use among households that had efficient use of water before the campaign. The effect is sizeable; this group has almost 9 percent lower use of electricity after the campaign compared with the control group.


Social Norms and Information Diffusion in Water-Saving Programs Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment in Colombia

This paper investigates direct and spillover effects of a social information campaign aimed at encouraging residential water savings in Colombia. The campaign was organized as a randomized field experiment, consisting of monthly delivery of consumption reports, including normative messages, for one year. Results indicate that social information and appeals to norm-based behavior reduce water use by up to 6.8 percent in households directly targeted by the campaign.


Essays on behavioral economics and policy design

This thesis consists of three self-contained chapters on issues related to spillover effects of behavioral and policy interventions aimed at reducing negative incentives provided by consumption and production subsidies, and discusses the implications for environmental policy design. The first two chapters investigate spillover effects of a behavioral intervention aimed at incentivizing residential water savings in Colombia.


Decisiones de localización y cambios regulatorios: el caso de la acuicultura en Chile

Se estudia la evolución de la actividad acuícola en Chile y el impacto de los cambios regulatorios sobre las decisiones de localización de los centros de cultivo. Este estudio considera un análisis descriptivo del desarrollo espacio-temporal de los centros de cultivo. Enseguida, utilizando un panel de datos, se estimó un modelo de elección de sitios con el objetivo de explorar los factores determinantes de la elección de ubicación de los centros acuícolas. Los resultados del análisis sugieren la existencia de un claro patrón de desarrollo espacio-temporal de la acuicultura en Chile.


ITQ Markets with administrative costs: An application to the industrial common sardine and anchovy fishery in Chile

Using numerical simulations of the mixed common sardine and anchovy fishery of central-southern Chile, we study the effects of the distribution of administrative costs between the government and the fishing industry in an individual transferable quota system. Consistent with recent theoretical results, we find that the level and distribution of the administrative costs between the public and private sector affects the period-by-period equilibrium quota price and number of active vessels.


Compliance in Artisanal Fisheries: Do Morality, Legitimacy, and Peer Effects Matter?

We study the compliance behavior of artisanal fishermen in central-southern Chile. Our empirical analysis explores the role of individual morality, perception of legitimacy, and peer effects as determinant factors in the decision to violate regulations. We control for potential simultaneity bias in the peer effects variable. Our results find evidence that moral standing, peer effects, and legitimacy considerations are important for fishermen’s compliance decisions. Policy implications to improve compliance with regulations in artisanal fisheries are discussed.


Quota Compliance in TURFs: An Experimental Analysis on Complementarities of Formal and Informal Enforcement with Changes in Abundance

We explore the effects of different enforcement mechanisms, including formal (external), informal (local), and both together, on individual compliance behavior under a system of territorial use rights in fisheries (TURFs). Our design considers different stock abundance levels and the effect that such differences may exert on extraction decisions and compliance behavior. The analysis is based on a framed field experiment conducted with artisanal fishers in central-southern Chile.


Using Taxes to Deter Illegal Fishing in ITQ Systems

We study the effects of different tax schemes used in fisheries management in combination with an individual transferable quota system. We focus on the effects of taxes on equilibrium quota prices and on violations under the assumption that enforcement to induce compliance is imperfect and costly.


Using Taxes to Deter Illegal Fishing in ITQ Systems

This paper studies the effects of different tax schemes used in fishery management in combination with an Individual Transferable Quota (ITQ) system. It focuses on the effects of taxes on equilibrium quota prices and violations under the assumption that enforcement to induce compliance is imperfect and costly. The use of taxes is motivated by the regulator’s need to recover costs for enforcement activities.


Who should set the total allowable catch? Social preferences and legitimacy in fisheries management institutions

This article presents a decision-making model based on situations that are typically encountered in fisheries management when setting the total allowable quota. The model allows assessing the differences in outcomes when different management institutions make the decision under uncertain conditions. Social preferences are considered to measure the social expected costs raised by different institutions.


Assessing Stakeholder Adaptive Capacity to Salmon Aquaculture in Norway

This paper explores the socio-ecological effects of increased aquaculture/farmed fish production, around the island group of Frøya in Trøndelag, Norway, as a result of new licenses accorded to the industry. This is investigated from a stakeholder perspective by assessing the adaptive capacity of selected stakeholder groups through workshops combining Scenario Analysis, Systems Thinking and Bayesian Belief Network and by developing conceptual frameworks and structural diagrams that visualize the perceived effects of the industry on the given stakeholder system.


Public Policy

Miguel Quiroga wrote an opinion article about public policy and distributive justice.


Is the information on fines relevant?

Using a series of laboratory economic experiments, we study the effect of information regarding the amount of the fine on the individual decision to violate an emission standard. Specifically, the analysis considers variations in the information available for the regulated subjects regarding the amount of the monetary sanction, as well as variations in the stringency in the inspection effort by the regulator.


Impact of forest certification on the growth of exports in Chile

We investigate and compare the growth of export relationships of Chilean forestry companies based on intensive and extensive margins. In turn each margin consists of new export relationships (extensive margin), Survival and Deepening (intensive margin). One risk that an exporter faces during its early years are short-lived relationships, Pursa and Besedes (2010) attribute this behavior to the existence of uncertainty and imperfect information regarding the costs that firms acquire when inserted in destination countries.


Survival analysis of the effect ISA virus in exports of Atlantic salmon in Chile

We analyzed the reduction in exportation levels of the enterprises which have been working with the Chilean Atlantic Salmon, following the outbreak of ISA virus (ISAv) in 2007. We used a Duration Econometric Model for assessing the risk and survival of the enterprises. Also were determined the factors that explained the reduction of exportation levels, through the Proportional Risk Weibull Model. The results shows that the enterprises affected with ISAv have greater probability of decreasing their exportations.


Economic and Environmental interactions between salmon aquaculture and artisanal fisheries: “An Application of Reloncavi estaury”

A bio-socio-economic model was developed to analyze the economic and environmental interactions between the aquaculture activity and artisanal fisheries related to the seed settlement of Mytilus Chilensis that is realized in the Reloncaví Fjord. Meaning by economic interactions the effects of the action of both productivities activities has on the employment and production variables of this sectors. And for environmental interactions the effect that has the aquaculture activity on the seed settlement activity, in terms of the uneaten food pellets (nutrients).


Estimación conjunta de la disposición a pagar y de la tasa de descuento inter-temporal para la protección de la biodiversidad en la reserva marina de Choros-Damas

In this paper we used a net present value model to jointly estimate the willingness to pay (WTP), and the intertemporal discount rate, for a biodiversity environmental conservation program whose payments are allocated along a time horizon. We applied a contingent valuation survey to capture the economic value associated with the protection of a marine ecosystem in the marine reserve, Choros-Damas in Chile. Respondents faced a scenario with a WTP question with periods of 1, 5, and 10 years.


Green Taxes

MiguelQuiroga wrote an opinion article about green taxes included in Chilean tax reform. Published in Vox LACEA, The Resource sharing platform of the Latin American and Caribbean Economic Association, as well.


Development Strategy

Jorge Dresdner wrote an opinion article about development strategy from local government of Biobío Region of Chile (in spanish).


Who should pay the administration costs of a ITQ system? An application base don numerical simulation.

Using numerical simulations of the mixed common sardine and anchovy fishery of central-southern Chile, we study the effects of the distribution of administrative costs between the government and the fishing industry in an individual transferable quota system. Consistent with recent theoretical results, we find that the level and distribution of the administrative costs between the public and private sector affects the period-by-period equilibrium quota price and number of active vessels.


The Environment for Development Initiative: lessons learned in research, academic capacity building and policy intervention to manage resources for sustainable growth

This article reviews the history of the Environment for Development (EfD) initiative, its activities in capacity building and policy-oriented research, and case studies at its centres in Chile, China, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania.


Trade-off between benefits, distribution and employment in fisheries: An application to the artisanal fishery in common sardine and anchovy in the Bio-Bio Region

This research analyzes the effect(s) of the reallocation quota among fishermen organizations which are associated to Artisanal Extractive Regime (RAE), upon the benefit distribution of those organizations, and the possible relationship or connect among this benefit distribution, the maximum benefit and the employment. In order to achieve this objective, Generating Techniques were used, which emerge as a subset of Multi-objective Programming. The implementation is based on data about Chilean sardine and anchovy from Biobio region, Chile, for 2011.


Determinants of the choice of mayors in the years 2004 and 2008

A través de fuentes de datos secundarias, esta investigación busca analizar las elecciones municipales en Chile a través de referentes teóricos y empíricos que permitan entender de mejor forma el proceso de selección de alcaldes. Específicamente lo que se intenta responder es: ¿qué hace que un alcalde en ejercicio busque la reelección? ¿Qué características de aquellos que deciden re postularse influyen en su probabilidad de ganar? ¿Qué características influyen en la cantidad de votos obtenidos?


Aquaculture Research

Jorge Dresdner wrote an opinion article about research in Chilean aquaculture.


Fishing Discards

Jorge Dresdner wrote an opinion article about discards in Chilean fisheries.


Taxes Reform

Miguel Quiroga wrote an opinion article about the tax reform drove for Chilean government (in spanish).


Field Experiments on Cooperative Management of Local Common Resources

This project will use the tools of experimental economics to study behavioral issues related to both the protection of a common-pool resource from poaching by outsiders, and the enforcement of rules and norms to maintain compliance within a group.  The experiments are motivated by the Chilean abalone (loco) fishery and will be conducted in the field with members of local artisanal fishing organizations.


Development and Education

Jorge Dresdner wrote an opinion article about the relationship between development and education in the Chilean context (in Spanish).


The Value of a Statistical Life in Chile

In this article we estimate the Value of a Statistical Life and the Value of a Statistical Injury for Chilean workers using a combination of data from the Chilean National Socio-Economic Survey that provides workers characteristics and the Annually Statistics from the Chilean Safety Association that provides labor risk data, both for the year 2006. we estimated a hedonic log-wage equation taking into account selection bias and endogeneity. The estimated Value of a Statistical Life is US$3,683,471, which increases five times after correcting by endogeneity (US$19,582,842).


Determining the Feasibility of Establishing New Multiple Use Marine Protected Areas in Chile

This paper evaluates the feasibility of establishing a Multiple Use Marine Protected Area. The methodology was applied to evaluate three proposed sites in Chile with diverse conservation needs, social stress and poverty levels, and different economic activities (small-scale fishing, heavy industry and mining activities). We use two broad categories for the evaluation: Socio-economic and political-institutional.


Labor as a Utility Measure in Contingent Valuation: Application to the Valuation of Restoration Projects in Latin America

Monetary contributions might not be an appropriate welfare measure in Contingent Valuation (CV) when household incomes are very low. In such cases, willingness to pay (WTP) is restricted by household's ability to reduce the consumption of other goods in order to pay for the environmental good under valuation. Beneficiaries, however, may be willing to contribute their time to work on the project instead of paying money.


Using economic and other performance measures to evaluate a municipal drought plan

Municipal water managers confront the challenge of anticipating when available water supplies may be insufficient to meet water demands and thus implement conservation policies, often in the form of drought plans. Drought plans are typically based on command-and-control (CAC) approaches like rationing and use restrictions, and are formulated to meet specific measures of performance. It is perceived that if customers are made aware of the required level of demand curtailment, and if the anticipated levels are achieved, no further service reductions will occur.