NENRE researchers gave talks at public schools during the sciences week in the “1000 scientist in 1000 classrooms” program. About 10 talks were given to students mostly in 7 and 8 grades, or in secondary schools.
EfD researcher, Carlos Chávez, NENRE-Concepcion, has been appointed by the Chilean Government to collaborate as a member of the "National Commission of Lithium" ("Comisión Nacional del Litio", by its name in Spanish).
New deadline for EfD's 2015 proposal submission is June 1, 2014. All proposals must be presented in the respective EfD Center Workshops before submission.
The objective of the workshop was to develop a scientific discussion in which we can think about the state of the art in Natural Resource Economics and the Environment in Chile.
On March 20, 2014, our center organized a short course on Impact Evaluation for Natural Resource and Environmental Programs designed for policy makers in Chile. The aim was to explain basic concepts of the impact evaluation methodology and show some examples of these methods in the area.
Professor James Murphy from Department of Economics in College of Business and Public Policy at University of Alaska-Anchorage visit our center in January 2014 to continue the research collaboration with Professor Carlos Chávez in field experiments with fishermen.
The Nucleus on Environmental and Resource Economics (NENRE) at Concepción has developed a strong line of research on the problem of using economic incentives for controlling air pollution in the urban areas of central-southern Chile.
The EfD center in Chile, Research Nucleus on Environmental and Natural Resource Economics – Universidad de Concepción, is currently developing a research project on the Artisanal Sardine and Anchovies fishery in Central Southern Chile for the Undersecretary of Fisheries and Aquaculture (Regulatory Fisheries Authority in Chile).
Professor Hunter Lenihan from the Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB), visited the EfD Center at Concepcion. Professor Lenihan is a Marine Ecologist that has extensive experience working on marine ecological restoration projects and aquaculture in California, North Carolina and the French Polynesia.
The ambition to make EfD a truly global network of research centers devoted to the application of environmental economics for development is now being acted upon. The Coordination Committee of the EfD Initiative welcomed three new centers as EfD members.
Urban air pollution affects especially children and the elderly and caused 9 million of deaths at the global scale in 2015, exceeding obesity and road accidents. The Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health stated that "despite of the significant effect on human health, the economy and the environment, pollution has been neglected, especially in low income and middle-income countries (L&MIC)”. Many L&MIC have used methods that potentially underestimate the economic cost of pollution.
Studying fuel choices for residential heating and cooking in urban areas of central-southern Chile: the role of preferences, income, prices, and the availability of energy sources and technology
Air pollution in urban areas is one of the major environmental problems in Chile. In particular, an important number of cities in central and southern Chile exhibit high levels of respirable suspended particulate matter, which are mainly due to emissions from household’s burning of wood for heating and cooking.
Small scale aquaculture as a livelihood alternative with marine conservation benefits in coastal communities in Chile
The project will inform the Chilean government’s implementation of Small Scale Aquaculture (SSA) to reduce pressure on wild marine resources and to provide income-generating activities to vulnerable artisanal fishing communities.
Small scale aquaculture as a livelihood alternative with marine conservation benefits in coastal communities in Chile
The long-run goal of this proposed project is to inform the Chilean government’s implementation of policies, such as promoting Small Scale Aquaculture (SSA), to reduce pressure on marine resources and to provide income-generating activities to artisanal fishing communities.
This project evaluates the effect of the intensity of fuelwood use on the prevalence of cardio-respiratory diseases in Chile.
Fuel choices for residential heating and cooking in urban areas of central-southern Chile: the role of income, prices, households’ preferences and the availability of energy sources and technology
This project aims at analyzing the determinants of the choice of fuel and the intensity of fuel use for residential heating and cooking in Central and Southern Chile. Because households’ energy production technologies include a variety of fuels, we first investigate households’ choices regarding the use of a particular fuel as their main energy source.
Variability and Uncertainty in Residential Wood Consumption due to Socio-economic factors, infrastructure, and environmental variables
This project seeks to explore the determinant factors of household wood consumption in urban areas of central-southern Chile. We explore the characteristics of dwellings, quality of combustion equipment, meteorological variables, along with other potential determinants of households’ consumption decision.
Determination of potential benefits from seaweed subsidy law in the aquaculture sector from Biobío and Los Lagos Regions
FIPA N° 2016-57 Benefit of the implementation of the Seaweed Subsidy Law
This project estimates indirect employment generated by the Chilean fishery sector at national and regional level.
This project will use the tools of experimental economics to study behavioral issues related to both the protection of a common-pool resource from poaching by outsiders, and the enforcement of rules and norms to maintain compliance within a group. The experiments are motivated by the Chilean abalone (loco) fishery and will be conducted in the field with members of local artisanal fishing
Ocean Food-Web Patrol – Climate Effects: Reducing Targeted Uncertainties With An Interactive Network
The project has the goal of providing more comprehensive and reliable information to climate scientists and politicians who must make decisions about climate actions. It will rely on collecting existing knowledge from databases and will generate new knowledge where gaps are identified.
The general objective is to estimate, from an interdisciplinary perspective, the economic and social impact of changes in water availability due to climate change.
Evaluación Socio-Económica de la Aplicación de Medidas de Administración Sobre la Pesquería Mixta de Pequeños Pelágicos de la Zona Centro Sur
El Departamento de Análisis Sectorial (DAS) de la Subsecretaría de Pesca, Gobierno de Chile, licitó un estudio con el propósito de evaluar, desde un punto de vista socioeconómico, los efectos de la aplicación de medidas de administración sobre la pesquería de peces pequeños pelágicos de la Zona Centro – Sur. Este proyecto fue adjudicado por la Universidad de Concepción.
CINTERA: A cross-disciplinary integrated eco-systemic eutrophication research and management approach
CINTERA is designed to improve knowledge of ecosystem response to eutrophication and management of eutrophication in different marine fjord ecosystems and zones in Norway and Chile.
Implementation and management of an ITQ fishery involves significant and costly administrative activities. These activities include formulating and implementing policy rules, monitoring and enforcement to deter illegal behavior, and economic and marine research. In this project we construct a model of a competitive ITQ system to analyze how the distribution of administrative costs b
Read about what EfD centers around the world have been up to during the last year in terms of research highlights and how our research relate to the Sustainable Development Goals.
The aim of this paper is to study the association between weather shocks (droughts and floods) and agricultural market performance in Mozambique. To do so, we employ a dyadic regression analysis on monthly maize prices, transport costs, and spatial identification of markets as well as droughts and flooded areas. Our estimates show that, while a drought reduces price differences between markets, price dispersion increases during flood periods, an effect that is mainly driven by increases in transport costs.
This paper investigates direct and spillover effects of a social information campaign aimed at encouraging residential water savings in Colombia. The campaign was organized as a randomized field experiment, consisting of monthly delivery of consumption reports, including normative messages, for one year. Results indicate that social information and appeals to norm-based behavior reduce water use by up to 6.8% in households directly targeted by the campaign.
The impact of infrastructure shocks on agricultural markets. Evidence from the Zambezi river in Mozambique
Prior to 2009, there was no direct road connection between the southern regions of Mozambique—where the capital city is located—and the more agriculturally-productive central and northern regions. In this paper, we leverage the opening of a major road bridge to identify the impact of enhanced domestic transport infrastructure on agricultural market performance. We apply a generalized difference-in-difference estimator within a dyadic regression context.
This work presents the results of framed field experiments designed to study the joint problem of managing harvests from a common pool resource and protecting the resource from poaching. The experiments were conducted both in the field with TURF users and in the lab with university students. Our study has two objectives. First, we designed our experiments to study the effects of poaching on the ability of common pool resource users to coordinate their harvests when encroachment by outsiders is unrestricted and when the government provides weak enforcement.
Economists review Chile’s seaweed farming subsidy policy by Miguel Quiroga The high cost of starting up seaweed cultivation projects along the Chilean coastline is the main hurdle to the aquaculture industry restoring areas where this key marine resource has been heavily harvested. The productivity of farmed seaweed areas also varies greatly between aquaculture sites, which further threatens the financial viability of projects that are geared towards shoring up coastal livelihoods and supporting marine conservation.
Stakeholder perceptions of enhancement opportunities in the Chilean small and medium scale mussel aquaculture industry
The Chilean mussel aquaculture industry is a prime example of a thriving industry. However, the industry growth rate, aquaculture concessions and market prices have stabilized signaling a shift in the industry from exponential growth to, if handled correctly, economic stability. Here we used perception research, an efficient tool to inform on the implementation of management strategies, to provide policy makers with the tools necessary for the development of strategies that will aid in the sustainability of the industry through its current shift. We assessed the perception
Functional forms and price elasticities in a discrete continuous choice model of the residential water demand
During recent decades, water demand estimation has gained considerable attention from scholars. From an econometric perspective, the most used functional forms include log-log and linear specifications. Despite the advances in this field and the relevance for policymaking, little attention has been paid to the functional forms used in these estimations, and most authors have not provided justifications for their selection of functional forms. A discrete continuous choice model of the residential water demand is estimated using six functional forms (log-log, full-log, log q
Agriculture is one of the most vulnerable economic sectors to the impacts of climate change, specifically those related with expected changes in water availability. By using a hydro-economic model, this study assesses the distributional impacts of climate change, considering the geographical location of each farmer’s community and the spatial allocation of water resources at basin scale. A hydrological model, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model, describes the basin hydrology, while farmers’ economic responses are represented using a non-linear agricultural supply model.&nbs
Is Participation in Social Organizations an Alternative to Improve Household Economic Welfare in Chile
This research aims to find the determinants of participation on social organizations in Chile through a social capital approach, as well as to evaluate the existence of a positive effect between participation and household welfare. In the case of economic and local organizations several regressions for participation and income were run.
The goal of this research is to estimate, using semi parametric (SNP) techniques, the recreational benefits related to one strategic ecosystem of high moors in Colombia. This technique was used during the travel cost method estimation process due to its flexibility. The chosen SNP technique corresponded to the Fourier flexible form, adjusting a Poisson model, such that the truncation and endogenous stratification biases in the data base could be taken into account.
Participation in Organizations, Technical Efficiency and Territorial Differences: A Study of Small Wheat Farmers in Chile
The lack of efficient individual solutions for small farmers either in the market or through the State has resulted in a search for collective spaces to strengthen their productive capacities, where participation in organizations emerges as a relevant factor to obtain higher efficiency levels.
In most developing countries non-irrigation status often dominates adoption of traditional and modern irrigation technology. In this paper, we study the effect of production risk on irrigation technology choice among small-scale farmers in Chile, applying sample selection and discrete choice models. We find that more educated farmers, with credit access, receiving extension services, and living in communes with more adopters are more likely to use modern irrigation techniques.
Economic development in low income settings is often associated with an expansion of higher-value agricultural activities. Since these activities often bring new risks, an understanding of cropland decisions and how these interact with shocks is valuable. This paper uses data from Mozambique to examine the effect of weather shocks on cropland decisions. We account for the bounded nature of land shares and estimate a Pooled Fractional Probit model for panel data. Our results show that crop choice is sensitive to past
Share Contract Choices and Economic Performance: Empirical Evidence from the Artisanal Fisheries Sector in Chile
Typically, crew members in fisheries are remunerated through a share of the total revenues. However, there is little empirical evidence on the mechanisms by which revenues are distributed to labor and capital, and how these distributions affect economic performance. Under an agency problem framework, we estimate a dose-response function to study the formation of contracts and identify the marginal effects of changes in crew profit shares on fishing returns in Chilean artisanal fisheries. The results support share contract choices
¿Ha contribuido el desarrollo de la salmonicultura en la Región de Los Lagos a la reducción de la pobreza rural? Una mirada empírica desde ingreso
We analyze if poorest people in rural localities of Región de Los Lagos, Chile have benefited in terms of poverty alleviation with salmon farms establishment within 1992-2002 period. In order to assess the impact of this event on poverty, we compare areas with and without salmon farms. We calculate poverty rates through small area estimation models at household level and we approach through differences in differences. Our findings suggest, that poverty decreased more in localities with salmon farms than in those who do not. We also identify geographic distances, betw
Aquaculture is on the most dynamic food production systems in the world, with a fast expansion, especially in developing countries. Among this sector, the Chilean mussel industry has experienced a substantial increase, turning Chile into one of the leading producers and global exporters of mussels. Among the different links in the mussel production chain, the natural seed collection conducted by artisanal fishers of southern Chile has been a fundamental pillar for the development of the industry. Often, this sub-sector has been thought of as a homogeneous group
We measure the impact that sanitary treatments that control ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi abundance have on unit production costs of Salmo salar farms in Chile. We follow complete production cycles for a sample of farms between 2009 and 2015. We estimate a simultaneous salmon biomass growth and Caligus abundance model. The statistical analysis determines the effect of antiparasitic treatments, location of farms, environmental conditions, and Caligus abundance on the salmon growth profile.
Fishery management of straddling stocks is conditional on available knowledge about relevant environmental shocks, such as El Niño events, affecting stock behavior. But knowledge of these issues is scant, particularly in developing world fisheries.
This paper explores the factors underlying both innovation choices and intensity among small-scale aquaculture producers.