Although developing countries have established scores of new protected areas over the past three decades, they often amount to little more than “paper parks” that are chronically short of the financial, human, and technical resources needed for effective management. It is not clear whether and how severely under-resourced parks affect deforestation. In principle, they could either stem it by, for example, creating an expectation of future enforcement, or they could spur it by, for example, creating open access regimes.
Concessions in Wild Protected Areas: Cost estimates for non-essential services in Chirripó National Park, Costa Rica.
Protected areas have been established for the conservation of natural resources and biodiversity worldwide. Funding for conservation activities in protected areas is not always available and this is especially true in developing countries. Thus, managers of protected areas must find alternative ways of obtaining resources.
We estimate the effect of hydro-meteorological emergencies on internal migration in Costa Rica during 1995–2000. We find that, on average, emergencies significantly increase average migration. However, we also find that emergencies with the most severe consequences, those with loss of lives, decrease migration. The severity of the consequences may explain the differences in the sign of the effect in previous research. We also find that emergencies significantly increase population in metropolitan areas. Less severe emergencies significantly increase migration toward metropolitan areas.
Targeted Scenario Analysis, A New Approach to Capturing and Presenting Ecosystem Service Values for Decision Makers
This guidebook provides a step-by-step introduction to Targeted Scenario Analysis (TSA), an innovative analytical approach, developed by UNDP that captures and presents the value of ecosystem services within decision making, to help make the business case for sustainable policy and investment choices.Through TSA, practitioners working with governments and private enterprises can generate and present data related to the management of ecosystems in a way that is more relevant to the choices facing a decision maker.
Read Francisco Alpizar opinion article (Valoración económica de daños ambientales) in "La Nación" (October 9th), related to economic valuation of environmental damage (Spanish only).
Livelihoods & incentives towards regulations for protecting turtles: Empirical evidence from Nicaragua
Marine turtles are a flagship species for conservation because of their ecological role in marine ecosystems as well as the existence value that humans attach to them. Despite the legal ban on turtle egg harvesting, poaching and consumption are very common in Nicaragua.
Small-scale fishing constitutes the main source of marine products and a central component of local livelihoods for poor families in coastal areas of Costa Rica. This country has been defining marine reserves, and fishermen are believed to be amongst the most prominent opponents of such policies, given the potential costs that entails the lost access of fishing areas of traditional use. However, it seems that this potential economic impact would depend on the livelihoods diversification, and the spatial definition of closures, among others.
Programs of payments for ecosystem services are policy instruments that compensate those who provide those services for the costs they incur. One of the most attractive characteristics of this type of programs is that they can increase the generation of ecosystem services while simultaneously reducing the negative economic and social costs that local people might face from land use restrictions.
The Environment for Development Initiative: lessons learned in research, academic capacity building and policy intervention to manage resources for sustainable growth
This article reviews the history of the Environment for Development (EfD) initiative, its activities in capacity building and policy-oriented research, and case studies at its centres in Chile, China, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania.
That wealthier developing country households may rely more heavily on child labor than poorer households has come to be known as the “wealth paradox.” This paper tests for a wealth paradox with regard to common natural resource wealth by analyzing the relationship between child labor and improved common property forest management (CPFM) in Bolivia.
The joint EfD Report 2013/14 showcases the work undertaken by the Environment for Development Initiative.
This paper investigates how different levels of entrance fees affect donations for a public good, a natural park.
According to advocates, eco-certification can stem environmental damages from tourism in developing countries. Yet we know little about tourism operators’ economic incentives to get certified. To help fill that gap, we use detailed panel data to analyze the Blue Flag beach certification program in Costa Rica where nature-based tourism has caused significant environmental damage. We use new hotel investment to proxy for private benefits, and fixed effects and propensity score matching to control for self-selection bias.
Crafting a set of rules and incentives for the local community in Ostional National Wildlife Refuge (ONWR), one of the few places in the world where sea turtles come ot nest in massive number.
Protected areas and economic welfare: an impact evaluation of national parks on local workers’ wages in Costa Rica
The number of protected areas around the world has significantly increased. However, the effects of this policy on the wellbeing of local households are still under debate. Using pre-treatment characteristics and household surveys with highly disaggregated geographic reference, we explore how national parks affect the wages of local workers in Costa Rica.
We estimate local effects of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) programs on poverty in Costa Rica between 2007 and 2009. Using household surveys and spatial geographic data, we are able to control for socioeconomic and geographic characteristics at the individual and census tract level.
In this paper, we investigate how different levels of entrance fees affect donations for a public good, a natural park.
Targeted Scenario Analysis: A New Approach to Capturing and Presenting Ecosystem Service Values for Decision Making
In this guidebook, EfD Central America Director and Senior Research Fellow Francisco Alpizar together with Andrew Bovarnick provide a step-by-step introduction to Targeted Scenario Analysis (TSA), an innovative analytical approach, developed by UNDP that captures and presents the value of ecosystem services within decision making, to help make the business case for sustainable policy and investment choices. This guidebook discusses the five steps that comprise a TSA. These steps include:
We estimate the effect of hydro-meteorological emergencies on internal migration in Costa Rica between 1995 and 2000. Nationwide, we find that an increase of one emergency in a canton significantly increases average migration rates from that canton, after controlling for several social, economic, climatic and demographic factors in both the canton of origin and destination.
Pro-environmental behavior is the willingness to cooperate and contribute to environmental public goods. A good understanding of why individuals undertake pro-environmental actions is important in order to construct policies that are aligned with preferences and actual behavioral patterns, such as concern for social esteem and reputation.
This paper analyses the underlying factors affecting people’s satisfaction with drinking water provided by community-based organizations in rural Costa Rica. These organizations provide water to more than 60% of the country’s rural population, but there is great disparity in the quality of water provided. Using a Generalized Ordered Logit regression and data from 41 villages, we studied how characteristics of the water supply infrastructure, the governance structure, and the attributes of local people affect consumers’ perception of water quality at home.
Behavioral Spillovers from Targeted Incentives: Losses from Excluded Individuals Can Counter Gains from Those Selected
Incentives conditioned on socially desired acts such as donating blood, departing conflict or mitigating climate change have increased in popularity. Many incentives are targeted, excluding some of the potential participants based upon characteristics or prior actions. We hypothesize that pro-sociality is reduced by exclusion, in of itself (i.e., fixing prices and income), and that the rationale for exclusion influences such 'behavioral spillovers'.
Effects of Exclusion from a Conservation Policy: Negative Behavioral Spillovers from Targeted Incentives
A critical issue in the design of incentive mechanisms is the choice of whom to target. For forests, the leading schemes: [i] target locations with high ecosystem-service density; [ii] target additionality, i.e., locations where conservation would not occur without the incentive; or, at least effectively, [iii] reward previous private choices to conserve forest. We use a field experiment to examine the changes in contributions to forest conservation when we introduce each of those three selection rules.
This is a PhD dissertation by Anna Norden contains five papers:
We offer a nationwide analysis of the initial years of Costa Rica’s PSA program, which pioneered environmental-services payments and inspired similar initiatives. Our estimates of this program’s impact on deforestation, between 1997 and 2000, range from zero to one-fifth of 1% per year (i.e., deforestation is avoided on, at most, 2 out of every 1,000 enrolled hectares). The main explanation for such a low impact is an already low national deforestation rate. We also consider the effect of enrollment.
This report presents the Environment for Development Initiative (EfD), its members and work during 2012/13. For a free hardcopy, please send an email to: email@example.com
This report presents EfD Central America, its members and work during 2012/13. For a free hardcopy, please send an email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
The expansion of a given land use may affect deforestation directly if forests are cleared to free land for this use, or indirectly, via the displacement of other land-use activities from non-forest areas towards the forest frontier. Unlike direct land conversion, indirect land-use changes affecting deforestation are not immediately observable. They require the linking of changes occurring in different regions.
Conditional Cash Transfers and Payments for Environmental Services - A Conceptual Framework for Explaining and Judging Differences in Outcomes
The objective of this paper is to explore the determinants of additionality of CCT and PES schemes, defined as the programs’ capacity to deliver desired outcomes that would not have occurred in their absence.
Governance, Location and Avoided Deforestation from Protected Areas: Greater Restrictions Can Have Lower Impact, Due to Differences in Location
For Acre, in the Brazilian Amazon, we find that protection types with differences in governance, including different constraints on local economic development, also differ in their locations. Taking this into account, we estimate the deforestation impacts of these protection types that feature different levels of restrictions. To avoid bias, we compare these protected locations with unprotected locations that are similar in their characteristics relevant for deforestation.
Empirical analysis of the factors that determine individual compliance with a locally devised set of rules for harvesting and selling marine turtle eggs, as well as for protecting the turtles and their hatchlings. Rules violators receive a monetary penalty, which implies a reduction in the income from sale of eggs. While some individuals do not have income reductions due to infractions, others have reductions of up to 40% of the total income.
Eco-certification can generate private benefits for tourism operators in developing countries and therefore has the potential to improve their environmental performance.
In this article we investigate whether people's donations in the field are affected by the presence of others.
This report presents EfD Central America, its members and work during 2011/12. For a free hardcopy, please send an email to: email@example.com
Consecuencias imprevistas y efectos en el comportamiento de los mecanismos de selección de Pagos por Servicios Ambientales
Cómo los incentivos de mercado afectan el comportamiento de los que no reciben el PSA? Con este estudio el Programa de Investigación en Desarrollo, Economía y Ambiente (IDEA) de CATIE se dio a la tarea de explorar esta pregunta en Costa Rica.
Lecciones de 20 años de experiencia en servicios ambientales en Costa Rica
Costa Rica: National level assessment of the role of economic instruments in the conservation policymix
Costa Rica: National level assessment of the role of economic instruments in the conservation policymix
Más allá de la dimensión financiera: Impacto del Programa Ambiental Mesoamericano en la calidad de vida y los capitales de sus familias beneneficiarias
Impacto del Programa Ambiental Mesoamericano (MAP) en la calidad de vida y los capitales de sus familias beneneficiarias
Our findings provide some of the first evidence that eco-certification can generate private benefits for tourism operators in developing countries and therefore has the potential to improve their environmental performance.
We conclude that distributional concerns need not rule out using fuel taxes to address pressing public health and safety problems, particularly if gasoline and diesel taxes can be differentiated.
To address simultaneity and the presence of spatially correlated unobservables, we measure for neighbors' deforestation using the slopes of neighbors' and neighbors' neighbors' parcels.
Eco-certification of coffee, timber and other high-value agricultural commodities is increasingly widespread. In principle, it can improve commodity producers' environmental performance, even in countries where state regulation is weak. But eco-certification will have limited environmental benefits if, as one would expect, it disproportionately selects for producers already meeting certification standards.
The paper discusses the application of Elinor Ostrom’s Social Ecological Systems (SES) framework, using as example a community organization in Costa Rica, which collectively extracts turtle eggs.
Why are some communities effective at providing safe drinking water, while others fail?
This Brief presents a framework that can be used to assess the potential impact of Payments for Environmental Services (PES) schemes.
Incentives, Impacts, and Behavioral issues in the context of Payment for Ecosystem Services programs: lessons for REDD+
A framework that can be used to assess the potential impact of Payments for Environmental Services (PES) schemes.
Protecting forests, biodiversity, and the climate: predicting policy impact to improve policy choice
We argue for integrating the consideration of location in policy planning in three ways, in order to help to predict policy impacts on deforestation and, thereby, improve policy choices.
Costa Rica has shown how a small developing country can reverse environmental degradation and one of the highest deforestation rates in Latin America. Key to its achievement has been the country’s PES programme, which began in 1997 and which many countries are now looking to learn from, especially as water markets and schemes to reward forest conservation and reduced deforestation (REDD+) grow.
The Motivation for Organic Grain Farming in the United States: Profits, Lifestyle, or the Environment?
Organic grain producers exhibited a diversity of motivations, including profit and stewardship.