Our hypothesis base on previous studies’ findings (see literature review section) suggest that so far PES are being assigned to big and relatively wealthy landowners, and that most landowners use the payment for investments within the property.
Understanding the tradeoffs between planned marine conservation policies and artisanal fishing in key coastal areas of Costa Rica
The projects objective is to identify local capabilities, assets, and activities that characterizes the livelihoods of small scale fishers in Costa Rica. A special attention will be given on how different regulations (external and internal) defining who, where, when, what, and how to fish might affect these livelihoods and the natural resource base.
In one of the major nesting beaches (La Flor), the Nicaraguan government has made an effort to enforce the prohibition to harvest by defining a protected area patrolled by governmental officers, and the army. However the effectiveness of this policy is questioned, particularly because of the difficulties to exclude people from turtle’s habitat, and the scarce governmental budgets dedicated to the enforcement of these regulations.
Individual Incentives to Cooperate within Community-Based Resource Management Institutions: Sea Turtles in Costa Rica and Nicaragua
Various policies and programs aim to generate benefits to local people while conserving biodiversity or a particular species.
Combining state of the art science with practitioners wisdom in the design of PES schemes: Lessons from the Costa Rican experience.
The Costa Rican PSA Program is widely cited in discussions about REDD+, including as a reference on the costs of implementing PES and the challenges of generating additionality and livelihood co-benefits (poverty reduction). As such, it is critical to document and extract lessons from the variation in payment levels and targeting criteria employed by Costa Rica´s National Forestry Fund (F
Improving energy efficiency in Costa Rican households: the effect of pecuniary and non-pecuniary incentives in shaping the timing of consumption
Reducing a country´s dependence on fossil fuels is central to mitigate climate change and to promote the use of cheaper energy sources. In Costa Rica most energy is generated using hydro-electrical plants, however the fact that energy consumption is lumped in peak hours forces the use of fossil fuel (mostly diesel and bunker) based electricity generation.
Exploring the role of index insurance on farmers’ adaptation to climate change strategies: a field experiment with Costa Rican coffee farmers
Understanding farmers’ responses to climate change is fundamental for the design of adaptation strategies in developing countries.
The purpose of this project is to test a bargaining game developed by Saborio-Rodriguez, Kwasnica and Shortle (2013) using experiments in a laboratory. In the game an environmental agreement to deal with water pollution is negotiated among three players located along a river. Negotiation leads to social optimum reduction in emission accompanied by a set of monetary transfers.
Beijing has notoriously severe air pollution and traffic congestion problems. Like many mega-cities in developing countries, it seeks to mitigate these problems by restricting vehicles from being driven one day per week based on the last digit of their license plate. Our project will use the contingent valuation method to estimate the cost this policy imposes on drivers.
Marine Protected Areas and Small-Scale Fishing Behavior: a Comparative Analysis between South Africa, Tanzania and Costa Rica
This thematic program examines marine resource conservation. This multi-center collaborative project, the first within this thematic program, focuses on improving policy to promote coastal conservation through marine protected areas (MPAs) and related management tools. Because signatories of the Convention on Biological Diversity have committed to establishing MPAs on 10 percent of their coastal waters, a widespread expansion of these areas is underway worldwide.
IDB Project for the Analysis of the Potential and Challenges of Property Tax in Latin American Countries
This project is funded by the Inter-American Development Bank
Analysis of Land Use Change (1992 - 2008) and formulating future scenarios of deforestation and degradation of forests in Panama
This project is a UN-REDD Program in Panama and is funded by the UNEP (United Nations Environment Program).
Strengthening research capacity in environmental economics to study the links between water and climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean
This project is funded by IDRC’s Climate Change and Water program (CCW).
Project contribute to reducing vulnerability to climate change and to help promoting the development of adaptation strategies that guarantee the human right to water for poor villagers in rural areas.
Migration as an adaptation strategy: analyzing the effects of extreme weather events on local migration in Guatemala
The project estimate to what extent migration movements within a country are explained by occurrence of extreme weather events in Guatemala.
A highly selected interdisciplinary group of experts working on water and climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean met in Panama City, Panama from Thursday, September 29th to Saturday, October 1st, 2011.
Arranca proyecto de estudios socioeconómicos de los vínculos entre agua y cambio climático en América Latina y el Caribe
Con el proyecto se busca promover la creación de capacidad de investigación, análisis y la evaluación del impacto del cambio climático y agua, utilizando las herramientas de la economía ambiental
Impact of uncertainty and pro-social attitudes on household’s solid waste management decisions: starting from scratch in a LDC
This project addresses whether increasing uncertainty about the beneficial consequences of collected waste or other aspects of the collection-recycling process affect contribution levels and in turn prosocial attitudes.
The role of coastal communities on the management of marine turtles in Central America: The case of Ostional Wildlife Refuge
To understand under which conditions a co-management alternative (a shared effort between the central government and the local community) might work to guarantee the sustainable use of a complex mobile common pool resource such as marine turtles.
Exploring the potential of safety nets as part of an adaptation to climate change strategy in Central America
This project explores the effects and the role of safety nets in adaptation to climate change in Central America.
The objective of this project is to estimate to what extent migration movements within a country are explained by occurrence of extreme weather events in general and more specifically by floods.
EfD-CA at CATIE began study sponsored by The Tinker Foundation
Methodology based on environmental economics principles, to be replicated in wildlife protected areas
Metodología del EfD-CA en CATIE basada en principios de economía ambiental por replicarse en áreas silvestres protegidas // Methodology based on environmental economics principles created by EfD-CA at CATIE soon to be replicated in other protected areas.
Conservation Polices and Labor Markets: Unraveling the Effects of National Parks on Local Wages in Costa Rica
The parks’ entrance location and the possibility of agricultural workers to switch to service activities can be important tools to take advantage of the economic benefits of parks.
Voluntary Environmental Regulation in Central America: Costa Rica’s Blue Flag Beach Certification Program
The objective is to evaluate the performance of Costa Rica’s voluntary Blue Flag certification program, focusing on beach communities.
Our research aims to develop a conceptual and empirical framework for analyzing the benefits and costs of various options for reforming pricing transportation in San José, and to use it to develop concrete policy recommendations.
The objective is to identify the drivers of the adoption of sustainable land management practices by coffee farmers in Costa Rica
This research project analyze the incidence of a fuel taxes in four Central American and Caribbean countries—Costa Rica, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and Panama—using household-level expenditure data.
What would have been the deforestation rate within and around protected areas if these protected areas had not been established? This project will allow to determine the impact of land conservation policies on deforestation and, with expenditure figures, the costs of saving an additional hectare of forest.
The aim of the study is to identify the factors affecting the performance of local organizations compared to centralized institutions in the administration and operation of aqueducts in order to make recommendations for improvements and for the future expansion of the decentralization process in the drinking water sector.
The purpose of this paper, is to test the absolute as well the relative importance of anonymity, reciprocity and information of others contribution on voluntary contributions to a national park in Costa Rica.
The project investigates the determinants of contributions (compulsory and voluntary) to national parks, understanding the motivations behind the contribution and how external factors influence the level of the contribution.
This project analyze the determinants of farmers adaptation to climate change using field experiments to reflect the main characteristics of damages associated with climate change under uncertainty, ambiguity , role of communication and monetary incentives.
Read about what EfD centers around the world have been up to during the last year in terms of research highlights and how our research relate to the Sustainable Development Goals.
According to advocates, eco-certification can improve developing country farmers’ environmental and economic performance. However, these notional benefits can be undercut by self-selection: the tendency of relatively wealthy farmers already meeting eco-certification standards to disproportionately participate.
Although field experimental methods are the workhorse of researchers interested in risk preferences, practitioners find surveys easier to implement. This paper compares results from experimental versus survey-based methods to elicit farmers’ risk attitudes, in context-free and context-specific decision settings. We then explore how the different survey estimates of risk preferences relate to real-life farming choices in a population of coffee farmers in Costa Rica.
Magnitude and Distribution of Electricity and Water Subsidies for Households in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
In Addis Ababa, an increasing block tariff has been used to calculate households’ monthly bills for electricity and water services. This study estimates the magnitudes of the combined water and electricity subsidies received by households with private connections to the electricity grid and piped water network in 2016, and it evaluates the distribution of these subsidies among wealth groups.
Credit, insurance and farmers’ liability: Evidence from a lab in the field experiment with coffee farmers in Costa Rica
This paper examines the effect of farmers’ liability on demand for credit with and without insurance. We test predictions of a theoretical model in a lab in the field experiment with coffee farmers in Costa Rica.
Climate change perceptions and adaptive responses of small-scale farmers in two Guatemalan landscapes
The productivity of certain crops such as coffee (Coffea arabica L.), maize (Zea mays) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is expected to decline in Central America because of climate change. This will impact regional economies and livelihoods of smallholder farmers relying on these crops for their food security and livelihoods.
Climate change will affect the distribution, productivity and profitability of coffee production in Central America, negatively impacting national economies and small farmer livelihoods.
Guía de análisis costo beneficio. Aplicación para medidas de adaptación al cambio climático en el sector agropecuario en Uruguay
El objetivo de este texto es presentar una guía práctica para la evaluación ex ante de políticas y proyectos a través del método de análisis costo beneficio (ACB), en particular para su aplicación en medidas de adaptación al cambio climático en el sector agropecuario.
The consequences of increasing block tariffs on the distribution of residential electricity subsidies in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
This study evaluates the distribution of electricity subsidies to residential customers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in 2016 that results from the current increasing block tariff (IBT) structure. Customer billing data supplied by the electricity utility were matched with socioeconomic information collected from a survey of 987 households, and used with a utility-specific estimate of the costs of electricity service to estimate household-specific subsidies.
Adaptación basada en Ecosistemas: una opción para la adaptación de la agricultura al cambio climático en Centroamérica
En Centroamérica, el sector agrícola es indispensable para el desarrollo económico, el alivio de la pobreza y la preservación de la identidad cultural. Gran parte de la producción agrícola regional procede de pequeños productores. La agricultura de pequeña escala proporciona medios de vida a más de 2.4 millones de familias, representa cerca del 50% del PIB agrícola de los países centroamericanos, y provee aproximadamente el 70% de los alimentos consumidos en la región.
Instrumentos de política para control de la contaminación del agua y la emisión de GEI por fuentes difusas provenientes de la actividad agropecuaria
En los últimos años, Uruguay ha evidenciado las consecuencias de la contaminación difusa proveniente de la actividad agropecuaria, lo que ha sido abordado a través de programas voluntarios para promover prácticas productivas más limpias, la regulación generalizada del manejo y uso de suelo, y un plan de acción para la protección del agua en la cuenca del río Santa Lucía. Este trabajo busca identificar potenciales oportunidades de mejora de los instrumentos económicos existentes en Uruguay, que puedan promover el diálogo y acciones.
Gobernanza para la Adaptación basada en Ecosistemas (AbE) para pequeños caficultores de América Central
Introducción. Las prácticas agrícolas basadas en el buen manejo de los ecosistemas son promovidas como una buena estrategia de adaptación para las actividades productivas de pequeños caficultores en la región Centroamericana. La diseminación de la información sobre innovaciones, técnicas, instrumentos, etc. entre las organizaciones y productores es clave para expandir y consolidar el uso de estas prácticas. Objetivo.
This article examines how basic socioeconomic and political factors are associated with higher levels of cooperation to garner a local community's shared green reputation. We analyze panel data on participation efforts in a collective voluntary environmental program, the Ecological Blue Flag Program, by the entire population of beach communities in Costa Rica between 2001 and 2009.
The impact of protected area governance and management capacity on ecosystem function in Central America
Protected areas (PAs) are a prominent approach to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem services. A critical question for safeguarding these resources is how PA governance processes and management structures influence their effectiveness. We conduct an impact evaluation of 12 PAs in three Central American countries to assess how processes in management restrictions, management capacity, and decentralization affect the annual change in the satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI).
Contributing to the construction of a framework for improved gender integration into climate-smart agriculture projects monitoring and evaluation: MAP-Norway experience
The Mesoamerican Agroenvironmental Program (MAP-Norway) is a multi-dimensional rural development program implemented in Central America since 2009, working with smallholder families, producer organizations, governmental organizations, and regional governance platforms. To monitor, assess, and evaluate the effects of the program on its beneficiaries, MAP-Norway uses a series of indicators that allow project managers and donors to adapt and follow-up on the interventions.
Central America is one of the regions with the highest vulnerability to climate change, with negative effects projected to affect its economy and